Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Parkia speciosa
Hasskarl, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: petai bean, stink bean, twisted cluster bean

Japanese: nejire fusa mame no ki

Malayan: petai

Tagalog: kupang

Thai: sator

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree, to 30 (-45) m high. Bole is reddish brown, especially near butt or on buttresses, buttresses large. Bark smooth or scaly-fissured; middle bark hard, firm, fibrous, outwards granular deep red-brown paler inwards, sometimes streaked or mottled, strongly smelling of beans. Leaves alternate, twice pinnate; primary rachis including petiole (11-) 21 to 34 (-45) cm long. Gland on petiole single, midway between base and first pair of pinnae. Pinnae 11 to 20 (-25) pairs, opposite or subopposite, rachis (3.5-) 6 to 9 (-10) cm long. Leaflets (18-) 29 to 42 pairs, oblong (3-) 5 to 10 (-12) x (1-) 1.5 to 2 (-3) mm, margins of adjacent ones continuous or overlapping, glabrous or with a few hairs around margin; apex rounded, base strongly auriculate on proximal side; main nerve central, straight at apex or slightly sigmoid. Capitula (or inflorescence heads) 5.4 to 6.7 cm long, somewhat biglobose at anthesis with central constricted nectar-secreting region about 2.5 cm diameter. Peduncles 4-10 per compound inflorescence reaching maturity, alternate, 7 to 57 cm long. Flowers are bisexual; calyx 6.5 to 9.5 mm long, including pseudopedicel of 1.5 to 2 mm, and largest lobes 1 to 1.5 mm long; corolla 7.5 to 10 mm long, lobes pubescent on outer surface, 1 to 1.5 mm long, then fused below for 1 to 3 mm and free below; filaments exserted 2 to 4.5 mm beyond calyx and united to 5 to 8.5 mm from base. Pods strap-shaped, usually twisted, the valves coriaceous, conspicuously swollen over, and indented between the seeds, glabrous, the veins prominent and forming reticulate network, c. 20-40 x 2.0-4.9 cm, gradually attenuate at base into a narrow stipe 3 to 13.5 cm long. About 18 seeds per pod, elliptical or broadly elliptical in outline, lying horizontal or obliquely horizontal across the width of the pod, up to 20-23 mm long; testa green, soft, strongly smelling of garlic (ASEAN tropical plant database [website now apparently defunct]).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occurs in scattered lowland rainforests and sometimes also in tall secondary forest, on sandy, loamy and podzolic soils, also in waterlogged locations, in freshwater swamp forest and on riverbanks. The tropical lowland tree requires some shade when young. Altitude: 0-1,000 (1,400) m, Mean annual temperature: About 24 degrees C, Mean annual rainfall: 1,000-2,000 mm Soil type: Prefers well drained loamy or clay-loam soils, but is also found in waterlogged soils"  (AgroForestryTree Database).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by birds  (AgroForestryTree Database).

Native range:  Naturally distributed in southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (Indonesia), Borneo Island and Palawan (Philippines); frequently cultivated in western Java and occasionally elsewhere (ASEAN tropical plant database [website now apparently defunct]).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Ministry of the Environment, Korea (2013)
Palawan
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 351)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 FEB 2013 and was last updated on 10 FEB 2013.