Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paraserianthes lophantha
(Willd.) I.Nielsen, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10.5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Albizia distachya (Vent.) J. F. Macbr.; Albizia lophantha (Willd.) Benth.; Albizia montana (Jungh.) Benth.; Inga montana Jungh.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: brush wattle, plume acacia, plume albizia, stink bean

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Tree with velvety puberulent branchlets, leaf-rachi and peduncles, the petioles with a gland toward the base; pinnae 8-10 pairs with 20-40 pairs of oblong obtusish leaflets 6-8 mm long, about 2 mm broad, usually sparsely appressed-pilose at least beneath, the mi-nerve excentric; spikes axillary, shortly peduncled, 3-10 cm long, more than 3 cm thick including the stamens, the crowded flowers distinctly pedicelled, silky-pilose, the calyx 2 mm the corolla 5 mm long; stamen tube scarcely longer than the calyx; pods 6-10 cm long, 12-18 mm broad, glabrous" (Macbride, 1943).

"Shrub, small treeLeaves evergreen; petiole with a gland; primary leaflets 7-15 pairs; secondary leaflets more or less 25 pairs, less than 1 cm. Flowers greenish yellow.  Fruit indehiscent or slowly dehiscent, 5-10 cm, oblong, flat except over seeds, barely narrowed between seeds, glabrous, brown"  (Hickman, 1993; p. 583).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, riparian habitats, forests, coastal beaches.  This tree grows commonly on moist soils of mountain slopes.  The tree is nitrogen-fixing and increases soil fertility levels.  It is fast growing with annual height increments exceeding 2 m under favorable conditions.  It forms dense stands that shade out native species and impede overstorey regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 301).  "Generally disturbed, coastal, urban areas; up to 300 m" (Hickman, 1993; p. 583).  "Shrubland, disturbed forest, riverbanks, coastal fringes, gumland, short tussockland, and bare land. Tolerates high to low rainfall, poor soils, salt, wind, and low fertility (fixes nitrogen)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand)

"In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months. Precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; exposed, but with protection from direct sun through coastal fog (camanchaca)"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "The long-lived seeds are dispersed by birds and ants.  The tree does not coppice after fire, but fire may promote the spread by stimulating germination"  (Weber, 2003; p. 301).  "Contaminated soil and gravel, fresh and salt water movement all spread seeds. Common seed sources are hedgerows, shelterbelts, gardens, roadsides, and waste areas"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Native range:  Southwestern Australia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"introduced and now reproducing itself spontaneously". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 545 (CHR), G. Uhe 1191 (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 550)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 690)
Subsp. Montana. Planted and reproducing, but not yet spreading.
Reproducing from planted trees.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 690)
Subsp. Montana. Planted and reproducing, but not yet spreading.
Reproducing from planted trees.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 8)
Subsp. Montana. East Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H70074 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H70077 (BISH, PTBG)
Reproducing from planted trees. Well established and locally abundant.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 690)
Subsp. Montana. Planted and reproducing, but not yet spreading.
Reproducing from planted trees.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 690)
Subsp. Montana. Planted and reproducing, but not yet spreading.
Reproducing from planted trees.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Native to southwestern Western Australia, naturalized elsewhere.
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Native to southwestern Western Australia, naturalized in New South Wales.
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
Belov, Michail (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also subsp. Montana.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 702)
"Waste places, scrubland, riverbanks and coastal sites".
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
Henderson, Lesley (1995)

Comments:  A noxious weed in South Africa. Extensively planted in Hawai‘i and reproducing (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 690).

Control: 

Physical:  "Hand pull or dig small plants (all year round). Ensure minimum soil disturbance.

Chemical:  1. Cut and squirt trees (all year round): Make 1 cut every 100 mm around the trunk and saturate each cut with 5 ml undiluted triclopyr 600 EC (5ml).
2. Frilling:  glyphosate (250ml/L).
3. Injection method (all year round):  drill holes sloping into the sapwood at regular intervals around the tree.  As each hole is drilled saturate with glyphosate (250ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (3g) or triclopyr 600EC (10ml undiluted). 
4. Stump swab (all year round): metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/L) or triclopyr 600 EC (50ml/L).
5. Spray (spring-summer): glyphosate (10ml/L) or triclopyr 600 EC (30ml/10L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.