Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Papaver somniferum
L., Papaveraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ying su

English: common poppy, opium poppy

French: oeillette, pavot somnifère

Spanish: adormidera, amapola, amapola real

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, annual, 30-60 (-100) cm tall (to 1.5 m in cultivation), glabrous or rarely slightly setose on plant below or on peduncle. Taproot erect, almost conical. Stems erect, glaucous, glabrous, occasionally somewhat setose. Leaves alternate; blade ovate or oblong, 7-25 cm, both surfaces glabrous, glaucous and rather waxy, veins distinct, slightly raised, base cordate, margin irregularly undulate-serrate, apex acuminate to obtuse; leaves below shortly petiolate but above sessile and amplexicaul. Flowers solitary, deeply cup-shaped, 5-12 cm in diameter. Pedicel to 25 cm, glabrous or rarely sparsely setose. Flower buds nutant at first, erect at anthesis, oval-oblong or broadly ovoid, 1.5-3.5 x 1-3 cm, glabrous. Sepals 2, green, broadly ovate, margin membranous. Petals 4, white, pink, red, purple, or various, often with a dark basal blotch, suborbicular or almost flabellate, 4-7 x 3-11 cm, margin undulate or variously lobed. Stamens many; filaments white, linear, 1-1.5 cm; anthers yellowish or cream, oblong, 3-6 mm. Ovary green, spherical, 1-2 cm in diam., glabrous; stigmas 5-12(-18), actinomorphic, united into compressed disk, disk margin deeply divided, lobes crenulate. Capsule brown when mature, spherical or oblong-elliptic, 4-9 x 4-5 cm, glabrous. Seeds many, black or deep gray, adaxially alveolate"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In the United States, "fields, clearings, stream banks, railroads, roadsides, and other disturbed sites; 0-1300 m"  (Flora of North America online).  In New Zealand, "locally common in disturbed waste land, roadsides, and depleted pasture"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 933).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Unknown in the wild, Papaver somniferum probably came originally from southeastern Europe and/or southwestern Asia. It has been cultivated for centuries as the source of opium (and its modern derivatives heroin, morphine, and codeine), and also for edible seeds and oil"  (Flora of North America online). 

Canary and Madeira Islands, north Africa, Cyprus, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain; widely cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"An occasional escape from cultivation in wasteland".
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"An occasional escape from cultivation in wasteland".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 556)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 556)
"La población se desarrolla y se extiende rápidamente". Voucher cited: Danton I(5/339)1682
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Both cultivated and weedy forms widespread".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 933)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 16 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 9 JAN 2011.