Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paederia foetida
L., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 21 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji shi teng

English: lesser Malayan stinkwort, skunk vine, stink vine

French: liane lingue

Hawaiian: maile kā kahiki, maile pilau

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Twining, malodorous vines; stems to 2-7 m long, puberulent in lines or sometimes glabrous.  Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate to ovate, 4.5-14 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, glabrous except lower surface with tufts of hairs in axils of primary veins, margins entire, ciliate when young, becoming glabrate, apex acuminate or acute, base cuneate to rounded or subcordate, petioles 2-5 cm long, stipules ca. 1.5-1.7 mm long, short-acuminate, short-fimbriate-ciliate to ciliate.  Flowers in cymes 2-12 cm long, sometimes several grouped together " with subtending leaves and forming panicles up to 30 cm long; hypanthium ca. 1.5 mm long; calyx lobes deltate, ca. 0.4-0.5 mm long; corolla white to pale yellow with a dark rose purple center, the tube ca. 7-11 mm long, densely floccose externally, purplish within with long, clavate, purple hairs, the lobes scarcely spreading, margins crisped-undulate; stamens inserted at different levels, included.  Fruit yellowish brown to red, glossy, subglobose, 4-6 mm in diameter"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1160, 1891).

Habitat/ecology:  "Waste places and cultivated land; secondary forest; at low altitudes.  A serious weed of young sugarcane.  Scrambles over trees and bushes."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 85-86).  "Forests and forest edges, woodland, tropical hammocks.  This highly variable and fast growing species grows naturally in openings of wet evergreen to dry deciduous forests and woodland.  The plant has both climbing and creeping stems, the latter root at the nodes.  The species forms dense curtains of intermingled stems, covering the floor, smothering all vegetation and altering the community structure.  Trees may be killed by the weight of vines.  The plant colonizes rapidly tree-fall gaps and persists once established, preventing natural forest regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 296).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often locally common in disturbed mesic forest, coastal sites, dry forest and subalpine woodland, sea level to 1,830 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1160); "smothers trees and smaller vegetation"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In New Caledonia, "cette espèce qui fleurit rarement est plantée dans quelques jardins; elle s'échappe parfois et couvre densément des arbustes en terrains vagues" (MacKee, 1994; p. 123).

Propagation:  "Seeds probably dispersed by birds and animals.  Vegetative propagation from rhizomes."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 85-86).

Native range:  India to Malaysia

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9133 (PAP)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1160)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1160)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (1999) (p. 14)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 980807-12 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 23)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100045 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1160)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 123)
Vouchers cited: Botton in Veillon 1125 (NOU), MacKee 23610
Spontané
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) uncertain if native
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 85-86)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 570)
In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 269)
As Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. In thickets. Also var. tomentosa (Blume) Hand.-Mazz.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 65)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 122)
Possibly naturalized.
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 85-86)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  An aggressive weed species on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and Mauritius.

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).

Control: 

Chemical:  "Difficult where maile pilau climbs over desirable plants. Sensitive to triclopyr and perhaps to other hormone-type herbicides. If non-targets are to be saved, only ground covering parts can be treated. Large stumps will probably require follow-up treatment, e.g. stump bark applications.  May be controlled with directed applications of foliage to avoid supporting vegetation, though some non-target damage is likely.   May be controlled with basal bark applications with 20% triclopyr ester product in oil, taking care to only treat vines and not contact supporting vegetation"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological:  Biological control information from the publication "Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States".


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.