Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Oplismenus hirtellus
(L.) P.Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Oplismenus hirtellus subsp. setarius (Lam.) Mez ex Ekman; Oplismenus setarius (Lam.) Roem. & Schult.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: basket grass, bristle basket grass, grass from Tonga, woods grass

Hawaiian: honohono, honohono kukui, honohono maoli

Mangarevan: piri rua ine, pori lue ire

Pohnpeian: rehmaikol

Spanish: cañamazo de monte

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials; culms decumbent, but flowering culms ascending, 2-4 dm long, glabrous or scabrous to short-pilose, nodes usually densely short-pilose.  Sheaths glabrous or appressed pubescent, villous on margins, the surface sometimes hirsute, collar villouos; ligule membranous, 0.6-0.8 mm long, truncate, margins with setae, 1-2 mm long; blades thin, lanceolate, usually somewhat asymmetrical at base, 5-10 cm long, 8-17 mm wide, upper surface very sparsely hispid, lower surface hispid or glabrous, apex acuminate.  Racemes ascending to appressed, 7-15 cm long, the lowest raceme 2-4 cm long, rachis scabrous or hispidulous in upper part, sometimes hispid on upper angles; adjacent spikelet pairs of lower racemes 0.5-4 mm apart; glumes ovate, 5-7-nerved, sparsely pilose, apex acute, first glume with an awn 5-10 mm long, second glume similar to first glume, but with an awn 1-2 mm long; first lemma similar to second glume, 3-4 mm long, short-awned; first palea, if present, hyaline, 3-3.5 mm long; second lemma white, ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous, 2.5-3 mm long, glabrous, glossy, margins enclosing palea, apex acute; second palea white, ovate, coriaceous, 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous, glossy, apex acute, margins inrolled.  Cayopsis ca. 2.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1565).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "In shady habitats, usually at low elevations" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 860-862). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in lightly shaded to densely shaded mesic valleys and mesic forest, sometimes in disturbed wet forest, 10-920 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1565); "displaces natives on forest floors and trailsides"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "moderately common..., occurring from sea level to about 600 m on hillsides and the edges of forest; it is usually found in damp, shady places" (Smith, 1979; pp. 343-344).  "Occasional in sunny places and sometimes in native coastal forest" (Whistler, 1988; p. 54).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Pantropical. Fosberg et al. (1987; pp. 50-51) list as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9501a, Whistler 3454
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 1402, Whistler 3565
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 52)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 38847)
Taxon name on voucher: Oplismenus hirtellus
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"A grass of the forest floor, where it is common and mat-forming". Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1756 (K, NSW), J. Pickard in A.N. Rodd 1443 (K, NSW), C. Moore 37 (K, MEL)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"A grass of the forest floor, where it is common and mat-forming". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 51 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 52 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 53 (CHR); M. Lazarides 8094 (CANB, K); 1804-1805, F.L. Bauer (K, W)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Raulerson 1094 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Falanruw 3057 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Varieties hirtellus and imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosb. & Sachet
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6751 (US); var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Evans 2209 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Varieties hirtellus and microphyllus (Honda) Fosb. & Sachet
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58912
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. microphyllus (Honda) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Falanruw 1789 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Hosaka 2860 (US, BISH), POM, K)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
As Oplismenus setarius
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
As Oplismenus setarius
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Wolf, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
As Oplismenus setarius
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Niering 740 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 132)
var. imbecilis (R. Br.) Fosb. & Sachet, voucher cited: Glassman 2843 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: M.J. Balick 4111 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Vouchers cited: Ledermann 13808 (B), Hosokawa 5577 US); var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Ledermann 13607 (B), Glassman 2843 (US), Hatusima 11128 (FU); var. microphyllus (Honda) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Nakao in 1941 (KYO)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43290)
Taxon name on voucher: Oplismenus hirtellus
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 60112 (US, BISH, POM, Mo, CANB, L, K, TI); var. microphyllus (Honda) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Kanehira & Hatusima 4336 (FU), Hosokawa 8990 (US)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fulanga Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbatiki Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nairai Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Totoya Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Voucher cited: DA 13245
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatulele Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 343-344)
Vouchers cited: DA 12630 (Melville et al. 7001), DA 8004, DA 8005, DA 16765
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: St. John 14700 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: St. John 14485 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9513 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence, S.P. Perlman & W.L. Wagner 9604 b (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. imbecilis fa. lanceolatus U. Scholz
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39480)
Taxon name on voucher: Oplismenus hirtellus
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12143 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 14)
var. imbecilis (R. Br.) Fosb. & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 64778 (US), Fosberg 64801 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. imbecilis (R. Brown) U. Scholz. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10277 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 38703)
Taxon name on voucher: Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 103)
var. imbecilis (R. Br.) Fosb. & Sachet
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. imbecilis (R. Brown) U. Scholz. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10347 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10514 (PAP), J. Florence 10524 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 103)
Also var. imbecilis (R. Br.) Fosb. & Sachet
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. imbecilis fa. imbecilis; also cv. 'Variegatus', cultivée
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11142 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 214)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Varieties hirtellus, imbecillis and microphyllus.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Voucher cited: G. C. Moore 201 (US); var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Anderson 316 (US, BISH, POM), Stone 3965 (US, GUAM), Fosberg 35299 (US, BISH, POM, BRI, P), Stone 4522 (GUAM); var. microphyllus (Honda) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: G. C. Moore 228 (US), Fosberg 35374 (US, BISH, MO, L, BRI)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1565)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 52)
subsp. undulatifolius U. Scholz. Vouchers cited: G.O. Fagerlund & A.L. Mitchell 613 (BISH), M.J. Remy 104 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1565)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 52)
subsp. undulatifolius U. Scholz. Vouchers cited: W.L. Wagner et al. 4993 (BISH), S. Ishikawa & D. Herbst 278 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1565)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1565)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 52)
subsp. undulatifolius U. Scholz. Voucher cited: E.S. Handy 33-15 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1565)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 52)
subsp. undulatifolius U. Scholz. Vouchers cited: F. R. Fosberg 9632 (BISH), Whitney s.n. (BISH 119665)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1565)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 52)
subsp. undulatifolius U. Scholz. Vouchers cited: D. Herbst 654 (BISH), H. Mann & W.T. Brigman 328 (BISH), Andersson s.n. (BISH 119697), F.R. Fosberg & K. Duker 8782 (BISH), M.R. Crosby & W.R. Anderson 1716 (BSIH), E.H. Bryan s.n. (BISH 19677)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 22)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 22)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 72)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 22322 (SUVA)
Rare
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 457)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island native
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (pp. 553-556)
"Shaded slopes and coastal forest".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 247)
Voucher cited: CHR 168736
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 54)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Whistler 10873
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Canfield 263 (US), Hosaka 6877 (US), Fosberg 32411 (US, BISH, POM, MO, BRI)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9492)
Taxon name on voucher: Oplismenus hirtellus var imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosb. & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Kanehira & Hatusima 4450 (FU)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Evans 604 (US, BISH, K, MO)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 50)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 77-80)
Var. imbecillis (R. Br.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Hardy 107 (US, BISH)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 50)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island   Burcham, L. T. (1948) (pp. 419-420)
Voucher cited: Burcham 138 (US)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 133)
Usually in forest shade, from sea level to above 7000 ft.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11239
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & A.J. Chepstow-Lusty 10731 (PAP)
Adventice
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 16502)
Taxon name on voucher: Oplismenus hirtellus
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 54)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 100)
Voucher cited: Sykes 812
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 100)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 688, Soakai 736
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 100)
Voucher cited: Soakai 890
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island native
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 54)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 72)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) native
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (pp. 553-556)
"Shaded slopes and coastal forest".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Includes var. imbecillis (R. Br.) R. & S. and ssp. microphyllus (Honda) Ohwi (see Fosberg et al., 1987; pp. 50-51).

Control: 

Chemical: "Probably susceptible to Glyphosate"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 26 APR 2010.