Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Oplismenus burmannii
(Retz.) P.Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Spanish: zacatillo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual. Culms prostrate, 10-60 cm tall. Mid-culm nodes glabrous. Ligule a fringed membrane, 0.4-0.8 mm long. Collar glabrous. Leaf-blades lanceolate or ovate, 1-10 cm long, 5-20 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross nerves. Leaf-blade surface smooth.  Inflorescence compound, a panicle of racemes. Racemes 3-8, unilateral, 0.5-2.5 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 2-13 cm long. Rhachis angular, pilose on surface. Spikelet packing imbricate or approximate.  Spikelets in pairs, subequal or the lower smaller. Pedicels oblong. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, comprising 1 fertile floret, lower floret sterile, upper fertile, without rhachilla extension, lanceolate, laterally compressed, 2-3 mm long, falling entire.  Glumes similar or dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate, 1.7-2.1 mm long, equalling upper glume, 50-75% of length of spikelet, herbaceous, 1-keeled, 3-5-nerved. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acute, awned. Lower glume awn 2.5-20 mm long, without vesture (but scaberulous). Upper glume ovate, 1.7-2.2 mm long, herbaceous, 1-keeled, 3-7-nerved. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse, muticous or awned. Upper glume awn 0-5 mm long.  Basal sterile floret 1, with palea or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate, 2.6-3.3 mm long, 100% of length of spikelet, membranous, 1-keeled, 7-11-nerved, pubescent, without hair tufts or with a transverse fringe of hairs or hair tufts, eciliate or ciliate on margins, emarginate, mucronate or awned. Fertile lemma oblong, dorsally compressed, 2-2.7 mm long, coriaceous, glossy, 7-nerved. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute, laterally pinched. Palea involute, coriaceous, without keels" (Sharp & Simon, 2002).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "In tropical and subtropical sub-humid woodlands and coastal grasslands" (Sharp & Simon, 2002).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North America, South America" (Sharp & Simon, 2002).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1563)
Vouchers cited: Lane 57-152 (BISH), Forbes 456.K (BISH)
Possibly naturalized.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island   Burcham, L. T. (1948) (p. 418)
Voucher cited: Burcham 137 (US)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 71)
In thickets at low altitudes.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 70)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 61)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Sharp, Donovan/Simon, Bryan K. (2002)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Sharp, Donovan/Simon, Bryan K. (2002)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 70)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 23 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.