Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Oldenlandia corymbosa
L., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: san fang hua er cao

English: flat-top mille graines, Old World diamond-flower

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herb with ascending or erect 4-anged stems; leaves acute at both ends, linear-oblong or narrowly elliptic, 1-3.5 cm long, 1.5-7 mm wide, subsessile or petiole very short, blade pale beneath, midrib prominent; flowers few (2-8) in axillary cymes shorter than the leaves; flowers white or faintly pinkish-purplish, on slender pedicels 4-8 mm long; calyx not exceeding ovary; corolla about 2 mm long; stamens inserted just above the base of the tube; capsule about 2 x 2 mm, exalate, flattened at apex, slightly laterally compressed"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 546-547).

"Slender annual or perennial herbs; stems prostrate to weakly erect, 1-4 dm long, few-branched to many-branched, glabrous.  Leaves narrowly oblong to linear, 15-20 (-30) mm long, 2-5 mm wide, apex acute, base cuneate, petioles ca. 1 mm long, stipules ca. 2.5 mm long, connate, margins with several glandular teeth of unequal length.  Flowers 1-3 (-5), axillary, peduncles ca. 8-10 (-15) mm long; calyx 4-toothed, the teeth ca. 1 mm long; corolla lavender to white, thin, broadly tubular, 4-lobed, ca. 2 mm long, the lobes 1-2 mm long.  Fruit didymous, somewhat laterally compressed, thinly cartilaginous, ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 2-2.5 mm wide.  Seeds numerous per cell, angular, ca. 0.25 mm long, areolate"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1141, 1891).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in vicinity of Hilo to Volcano, Hawai‘i, and apparently recently naturalized in Honolulu"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1141). In American Samoa, "uncommon in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 34). In New Guinea, "a weed of gardens and roadsides, and in natural situations; grassland, streamsides, foreshores" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 145).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Native to tropical Africa, including Madagascar, and India.
A pantropical weed (Stone, 1970; pp. 546-547).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Sykes 17
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 29189)
Taxon name on voucher: Oldenlandia corymbosa L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: CBM-BS-58957, CBM-BS-59224
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59000
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 65)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 60171 (US, BISH, POM, NY, L)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 23)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 60420 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2423 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2871 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 7913 (PTBG), K.M. Nagata 1486 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46685 (US)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3816)
Taxon name on voucher: Oldenlandia corymbosa
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 546-547)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1141)
Voucher cited: Kami s .n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 000409-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (pp. 40-41)
Voucher cited: Starr, Starr, Higashino & Abbott 040330-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence & H. Iltis 6611 (BISH, MO, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1141)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Hobdy 2334 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 12)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H30019 (BISH), Oppenheimer H40018 (BISH), Oppenheimer H700108 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1141)
Voucher cited: Wagner 5685 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
As Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 74)
Voucher: Imada 2003-20 (BISH 697635)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Raulerson 3659 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 41398 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 11)
"Common; in fields and ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 64)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 41376, Fosberg 48018, Herbst 8902, Herbst 8908, Herbst 8956, Herbst 8979, Herbst 9020, Herbst 9033, Whistler 11274
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 47558)
Taxon name on voucher: Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 11)
"Common to abundant; in lawns and ruderal areas of Arno village and other parts visited".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 119)
"Weed in gardens, in potted plants, along roadways and ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A20)
Uncommon; weed around houses and in ruderal areas. Voucher 0726201006 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200902
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49803)
Taxon name on voucher: Oldenlandia corymbosa
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 187)
Vouchers cited: Scully 140N (US), Thaman & Manner 143 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9560 (BRIU)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 44)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 919)
Taxon name on voucher: Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Raulerson 5828 (US), Raulerson 6073 (US), Blackburn 275 (US, BISH), Fosberg & Evans 47434 (US, BISH, POM, NY, L), Fosberg 32488 US, BISH, POM, NY, L), Otobed PW-10029 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Vouchers: Lorence 9844 (PTBG, BNM), Lorence 9925 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 218)
Taxon name on voucher: Oldenlandia corymbosa L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8260 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 27938)
Taxon name on voucher: Oldenlandia corymbosa (L.) Lam.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 266)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1343)
Taxon name on voucher: Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 145)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 493)
Often common in and about towns, in waste places, gardens, etc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 41451)
Taxon name on voucher: Oldenlandia corymbosa L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 9294)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (pp. 80, 95)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 176)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 264)
As Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. In wasteland or on grassland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 176)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 64)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 252)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 121)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 8)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
As Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 34)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 52081 (US), Fosberg 52139 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 59)
Vouchers cited: Jeffrey 1183, Procter 4166, Robertson 2736


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 OCT 2006.