Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Oenothera stricta subsp. stricta
Ledeb. ex Link, Onagraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Oenothera striata Link

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: dai xiao cao

English: Chilean evening-primrose, common evening primrose, sweet sundrop

Spanish: Don Diego de la noche, amarillo, flor de San José

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or perhaps sometimes biennial herbs; stems erect or rarely decumbent, 3.5-15 dm long, unbranched or with a few side branches, strigillose, especially below, and sparsely to densely villous and glandular pubescent.  Basal leaves narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, 10-15 cm long, 0.8-1.3 cm wide, flat or slightly undulate, margins serrate; cauline leaves very narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 2-10 cm long, 0.6-1.2 cm wide, flat or slightly undulate, margins serrate.  Flowers in the upper leaf axils, 1 to several opening each day per stem near sunset; floral tube 2-4.5 cm long; sepals with distinct tips 1-3 mm long; petals yellow, often with a red  spot at the base, broadly obovate, 1.5-2.5 (-3.5) cm long; pollen ca. 50% fertile; stigma surrounded by anthers at anthesis.  Capsules conspicuously enlarged at apex, 3-4 cm long.  Seeds in 2 rows per cell, ellipsoid, 1.3-1.8 mm long, with a short beak"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1001).

"Herbacée dressée annuelle ou biannuelle atteignant 1 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses feuilles lancéolées et poilues, ses fleurs solitaires de couleur jaune, orange ou rouge à 4 pétales et son fruit sec (une capsule) de forme cylindrique" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and relatively common in open sites, especially along roadsides, 1,200-2,740 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1001). In Australia, "it inhabits roadsides and other disturbed areas, especially on sandy soils" (Auld & Medd, 1987, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 181).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Chile and Argentina, South America, now naturalized on all continents except Antarctica" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1001).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 24, 29)
"Nous l’avons observé abondante en haut de plage sableuse à Ovahe où elle envahit le vestige de végétation littorale indigène à Tetragonia tetragonoides & et Boerhavia acutifolia" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1001)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1001)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Forbes 1070.M (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 181)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 181)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 181)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist, disturbed habitats near streams, roadside ditches, usually escaped from cultivation; 600-2500 m. Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 912)
"Behind beaches and in other sandy and stony areas such as river beds, roadsides, railway embankments, and open waste places".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1001)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist, disturbed habitats near streams, roadside ditches, usually escaped from cultivation; 600-2500 m.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"

Control: 

Physical:  "La lutte par arrachage manuelle (arrachage des plants) est réalisable mais difficile en raison du sytème racinaire profond" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).

Chemical:  "La lutte chimique est à proscrire sur la plage sableuse" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).


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This page was created on 28 FEB 2006 and was last updated on 9 JAN 2011.