Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Oenothera stricta subsp. stricta
Ledeb. ex Link, Onagraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Oenothera striata Link

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: dai xiao cao

English: Chilean evening-primrose, common evening primrose, sweet sundrop

Spanish: amarillo, Don Diego de la noche, flor de San José

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or perhaps sometimes biennial herbs; stems erect or rarely decumbent, 3.5-15 dm long, unbranched or with a few side branches, strigillose, especially below, and sparsely to densely villous and glandular pubescent.  Basal leaves narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, 10-15 cm long, 0.8-1.3 cm wide, flat or slightly undulate, margins serrate; cauline leaves very narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 2-10 cm long, 0.6-1.2 cm wide, flat or slightly undulate, margins serrate.  Flowers in the upper leaf axils, 1 to several opening each day per stem near sunset; floral tube 2-4.5 cm long; sepals with distinct tips 1-3 mm long; petals yellow, often with a red  spot at the base, broadly obovate, 1.5-2.5 (-3.5) cm long; pollen ca. 50% fertile; stigma surrounded by anthers at anthesis.  Capsules conspicuously enlarged at apex, 3-4 cm long.  Seeds in 2 rows per cell, ellipsoid, 1.3-1.8 mm long, with a short beak"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1001).

"Herbacée dressée annuelle ou biannuelle atteignant 1 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses feuilles lancéolées et poilues, ses fleurs solitaires de couleur jaune, orange ou rouge à 4 pétales et son fruit sec (une capsule) de forme cylindrique" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and relatively common in open sites, especially along roadsides, 1,200-2,740 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1001). In Australia, "it inhabits roadsides and other disturbed areas, especially on sandy soils" (Auld & Medd, 1987, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 181).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Chile and Argentina, South America, now naturalized on all continents except Antarctica" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1001).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 24, 29)
"Nous l’avons observé abondante en haut de plage sableuse à Ovahe où elle envahit le vestige de végétation littorale indigène à Tetragonia tetragonoides & et Boerhavia acutifolia" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1001)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1001)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Forbes 1070.M (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 181)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 181)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 181)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1001)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist, disturbed habitats near streams, roadside ditches, usually escaped from cultivation; 600-2500 m. Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 912)
"Behind beaches and in other sandy and stony areas such as river beds, roadsides, railway embankments, and open waste places".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist, disturbed habitats near streams, roadside ditches, usually escaped from cultivation; 600-2500 m.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"

Control: 

Physical:  "La lutte par arrachage manuelle (arrachage des plants) est réalisable mais difficile en raison du sytème racinaire profond" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).

Chemical:  "La lutte chimique est à proscrire sur la plage sableuse" (Meyer, 2008; p. 24).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 28 FEB 2006 and was last updated on 9 JAN 2011.