Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ocimum gratissimum
L., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: wu mao ding xiang luo le

English: African basil, clove basil, shrubby basil, tree basil, wild basil

French: basilic, basilic sauvage, menthe gabonaise

Maori (Cook Islands): miri nganga‘ere, miri papa‘ā, miri taratoni, miri tītā, miri tūpāpaku, miri tūtae puaka

Tahitian: miri papa‘ā, miri taratoni

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs, woody at base; stems 1-3 m long.  Leaves broadly to narrowly ovate, usually 5-13 cm long, 3-9 cm wide, both surfaces copiously glandular punctate, upper surface glabrate to sparsely puberulent, lower surface puberulent on veins, margins serrate, apex acuminate, base cuneate, petioles 1-6 cm long.  Calyx 3-5 mm long, enlarging up to ca. 7 mm long in fruit, tube usually 2-2.5 mm long at anthesis, sparsely hispidulous or puberulent and dotted with sessile oil globules, glabrous within, upper lobe ovate, median lobes of lower lip shorter than lateral ones; corolla greenish white to greenish yellow, 4-7 mm long.  Nutlets subglobose, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, slightly rugose"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 808).

Habitat/ecology:  "Mostly a weed of roadsides and wasteland, but is also important in pastures.  It is not a problem in cultivation.  It prefers moist and fertile soils during growth, but will tolerate drought after flowering" (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 17-18).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry, disturbed habitats, 3-430 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 808).  In French Polynesia, "commonly present through much of the low elevation portions of the islands" (Welsh, 1998; p. 130). In New Caledonia, "le basilic sauvage se montré très envahissant, faisant localement des fourrés denses monospécifiques, surtout en des endroits humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 69).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Pantropical, native origin unknown, widely naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 40, 42)
"Lefeuvre et al., 2005. Nous n’avons pas vues lors de cette" (Meyer, 2008).
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 10243)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Voucher: Flynn 6996 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 150749)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 150750)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 150751)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 340)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9374 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence, W.L. Wagner, J. Florence, Y. Séchan & S. Bishop 6165 (PAP), J. Florence 7363 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 543861)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000453)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6327)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 411 (PAP), B.G. Decker 527 (PAP), B.G. Decker 632 (PAP), B.G. Decker 648 (PAP), B.G. Decker 791 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1254 (PAP), M.-H. Sachet 1291 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4100 (PAP), J. Florence 6892 (PAP), B.G. Decker 2184 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 77953)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491163)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 554196)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554380)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583863)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Decker 1744 (PAP)
Adventice. Very common.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4437 (PAP), B.G. Decker 255 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554402)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D. Baré 59 (PAP), J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11672 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 417341)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 619017)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643304)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Raynal 17824
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64762 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2128 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 492831)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Puohine? Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3388b (PAP), F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63132 (PAP) (as Ocimum suave Willd.)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491048)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5263 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492313)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2280 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37287)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7037 (PAP)
Adventice. Ornementale assez commune.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5628 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11239 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643999)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5513 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 898869)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: T. Flynn 1990 (BISH, MO, PTBG), T. Flynn 2705 (BISH, F, MO, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
Voucher cited: Christopersen s. n. (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Coastal, wetlands"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Se montre très envahissante, faisant localement des fourrés denses monospécifiques.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: Franc 2353, Jacques s.n., MacKee 4124, MacKee 15516, MacKee 28351, Bourret 109 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23595
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 95)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 490-491)
Frequent in the Bazelle Peninsula and Duke of York Islands, in the gardens of the natives and their surroundings. Not observed in New Ireland, but planted by the writer at Ugana.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Voucher: Flynn 6936 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 322)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum gratissimum
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 73)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 54)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 236)
Cited: Moseley.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 67)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 157)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 964 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 33)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.

Comments:  An invasive species throughout the southern group of the Cook Islands.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 JAN 2008.