Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ocimum basilicum
L., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: atbahakat

Chinese: luo le

English: basil, common basil, mint, sweet basil

Fijian: tomole

French: basalic, basilic commun

Hawaiian: kī ‘a‘ala, kī paoa

Hindi: tulsi

I-Kiribati: te marou, te miri

Mangarevan: tamore miri

Maori (Cook Islands): mili, miri, miri kura, miri kura, mori

Nauruan: dementsi

Niuean: momili, momili elo, momili manogi

Palauan: rur a ked

Pukapukan: mili

Samoan: lā‘au sauga, lā‘au sauga, sauga, sauga

Spanish: albaca, albahaca

Tahitian: miri, miri Tahiti

Tongan: akau pāpālangi, sanga, ta‘eta‘e

Tongarevan (spoken): mili

Tuvaluan: mili

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or short-lived perennial herbs; stems 5-10 dm long, many-branched, sparsely to densely villous, especially when young.  Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, 3-6 (-11) cm long, 1.3-3 (-5) cm wide, both surfaces copiously dotted with sessile oil glands, upper surface puberulent, lower surface strigose on veins, margins subentire to remotely crenulate, apex acute, base cuneate, petioles 1-2 cm long.  Calyx 2-5 mm long, enlarging up to 9 mm long in fruit, tube ca. 3 mm long, dotted with oil glands, sparsely short-hirsute, sometimes also very sparsely long-hirsute, densely hirsute within at base, lower teeth as long as  or slightly longer than the upper tooth, mouth of fruiting calyx open; corolla white, sometimes tinged pink, 7-10 mm long.  Nutlets ellipsoid, 1.5-3.5 mm long, pitted, mucilaginous when wet"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 808).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry, disturbed habitats, 15-400 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 808).  In Fiji, "cultivated in villages and gardens up to an elevation of about 250 m and it is also a naturalized weed of roadsides and waste places"  (Smith, 1991; p. 229). In New Caledonia, "cultivé comme aromate en formes assez variables; parfois spontané en terrains vagues" (MacKee, 1994; p. 69).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Pantropical, widely cultivated and naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island uncertain if native
invasive
cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 54)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31558 (US, BISH)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. basilicum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. basilicum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. basilicum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. basilicum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. basilicum and var. pilosum
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 18)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 101)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 229)
Vouchers cited: Harvey, Nov. 1855; Seemann 358
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 229)
Voucher cited: Modeley, July 1874
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 229)
Voucher cited: Smith 7482
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 229)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 480
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 229)
Vouchers cited: DA 9746, DA 9753, DA 10290, DA 12141, DA 16951
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 229)
Voucher cited: Milne 380
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11059 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1011 (PAP), J.-C. Thibault 1063 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9331 (PAP), S.P. Perlman & J. Florence 10044 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 9226)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum basilicum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39833)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum basilicum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41420)
Taxon name on voucher: Ocimum basilicum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 129-130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D. Baré 76 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 129-130)
Voucher cited: BRY 25431
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64928 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 129-130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Sachet 989 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 129-130)
Vouchers cited: Moore 109, BRY 26081
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 129-130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 129-130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4705 (PAP)
Cultivée, se naturalise.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Plantée plutôt comme ornementale, tend à se naturaliser". Voucher cited: J. Florence 10190 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll   Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 31)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 14)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Plutôt traitée comme ornementale, tend à se maintenir en formation rudérale et fare abandonnés". Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11177 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 513)
Voucher cited: G.E.S. 98
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: OED 2010033104 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H50611 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
Voucher cited: Stokes s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 808-809)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 30)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Voucher: Imada 2003-141 (BISH 697753)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Marakei Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 28)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Nikunau Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 28)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Nonouti Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 28)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 74)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 28)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 101)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 242)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 157-158)
Vouchers cited: Thaman & Manner 141 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 22305 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: Thiébaut s.n., Vieillard s.n., MacKee 27298, MacKee 28337
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 23926, MacKee 24367, MacKee 31960, MacKee 31961
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 104)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169920, CHR 169921, CHR 169922
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 104)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9980 (BISH), Yuncker 10022 (BISH), Yuncker 10049 (BISH), Yuncker 10176 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 44)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 31)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 490)
Common everywhere, in the gardens of the natives.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 43)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 421-422)
In the settled areas at low and medium altitudes, sometimes planted; often spontaneous in open waste places.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 49)
Vouchers cited: Ross 52, Fosberg & R. Clark 11288
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 95)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 235)
Cited: Lister.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Moseley s.n.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 235)
Cited: Home.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 235)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 50)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mostly cultivated as an aromatic herb, sometimes wild.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 237)
In wasteland, near village.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 251)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 64)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mostly cultivated as an aromatic herb, sometimes wild.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 121)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 33)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 150)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 53)


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This page was created on 18 DEC 2003 and was last updated on 20 OCT 2006.