Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Nypa fruticans
Wurmb., Arecaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Nipa fruticans Thunb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shui ye

English: mangrove palm, nipa, nipa palm, nypa palm, swamp palm

French: palmier d'eau, palmier des marais, palmier des marécages, palmier nipa

Japanese: nippa yashi, nippayasi

Kosraean: fals

Palauan: toechel

Pohnpeian: parem

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Stems prostrate except for briefly ascending tips, rhizomatous, subterranean under mud of riverine or mangrove swamps; leaves large pinnate, 3-5 m long, with about 42 pairs of segments, mostly alternate, linear, acute or attenuate, up to 170 cm long and over 6 cm wide, glabrous except for a few scales dorsal on the midrib; inflorescence axiallary, near the ground, pedunculate, erect, up to 75 cm long, monoecious; staminate flowers in dense bracteate spikes, about 3 mm long, stemens 3, fused, no pistillode; pistillate flowers in a globose head, perianth of 6 vestigial scales, carpels 3; fruit a large globose syncarp, the segments cuneate-obovoid, ribbed, capped by a short stigmatic beak.  The large fruiting heads reach a diameter of 30 cm, the individual segments a length of 10-11 cm.  The seed is edible when still young"  (Stone, 1970; p. 142).

Habitat/ecology:  "Low-lying estuarine tidally flooded areas, or sometimes in wet areas near the sea"  (Flora of China online).  On Guam:  "Introduced from the Philippines, where it is native, now naturalized at the mouth of most streams in Guam, although  not very common except on the east coast; fairly abundant on the Pago River, the Ylig River, and further south, where the water is brackish"  (Stone, 1970; p. 142).

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes.

Native range:  India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland), Japan (Ryukyu Islands) (GRIN); Solomon Islands, Caroline Islands (Vander Velde, 2003; p. 33).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tadiu Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8125 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3861 (NY), A. Dores 116 (NY, BISH, PTBG), B. Ekiek 90 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2008) (p. 4)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (pp. 76-77)
"Introduced in Jardin Botanique Harrison Smith botanic gardens in 1928, is locally naturalized in the garden but will not expand its distribution as suitable esturine habitat is scarce or lacking in French Polynesia".
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 142)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 15)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8229 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 85)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hainan
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 64)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 2 MAR 2012 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2013.