Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Nymphaea spp.
Nymphaeaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: water lily

French: nénuphar

Maori (Cook Islands): riri moe vai, riri vai

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "Herbs with thick rhizomes; leaves alternate, appearing spirally arranged, arising from the rhizome, the blade simple, laterally attached or attached some distance from the margin of a sinus, usually floating; flowers long-pedunculate, solitary, arising from the rhizome; sepals usually 4, greenish; petals numerous, pink, white or variously colored, conspicuous; stamens numerous, transitional with the petals, the filaments flattened (petaloid); pistil 1, the ovary with several to many carpels and locules; stigmas several to many, broad, petaloid; fruit a baccate capsule, many-seeded, tardily dehiscent"  (Welsh, 1998; p. 205).

Nymphea capensis Thunberg:  "Herb, perennial, aquatic, rooting in the mud and forming tubers.  Leaves simple, alternate, leaf blade heart-shaped to nearly round, 16-25 cm across on a long petiole, floating on the surface of the water.  Flowers anytime during the year; flowers solitary on long stalks rising above the water.  Corolla of numerous, free, lanceolate, blue, white, pink, or red petals 4-7 cm long, surrounding the numerous yellow stamens and staminodes.  Fruit a many-seeded spongy berry, developing underwater after the passé flower becomes submerged"  (Whistler, 2000; p. 331).

Habitat/ecology:  Aquatic: Freshwater lakes, ponds, ditches, canals, marshes, and slow-moving streams.  In Fiji, "locally abundantly naturalized in roadside ditches, etc."  (Smith, 1981; pp. 146-147).

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes

Native range:  Africa

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
?
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
N. capensis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
N. capensis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 87)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
N. capensis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 93)
Voucher: Flynn 7077 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 400)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea sp.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
N. capensis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Nymphaea capensis var. zanzibarensis
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 21)
Nymphia sp.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 76)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 118)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26256 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58446 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1889 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 1057 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 649859)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea (Genus of Nymphaeaceae)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 147)
N. capensis and var. rosea. Vouchers cited: DA 17323, DA 957
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33714)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea capensis Thunb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 698743)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea capensis Thunb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 324)
N. nouchali N.L. Burman var. caerulea (M.J.C.L. Savigny) B. Verdcourt
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 323-324)
Nymphea lotus L., Nymphea x baubenyana W.T. Baxter ex C.G.B. Daubeny
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   University of California (2006)
Nymphea capensis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Nymphaea sp. Voucher cited: J. Raynal 17995 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 205)
N. capensis: Voucher cited: Moore 191, BRY 26397; N. lotus: Voucher cited: Moore 191, BRY 26326
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 323-324)
N. lotus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 205)
N. capensis: Voucher cited: Grant 5187
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 205)
N. lotus, N. capensis: Voucher cited: Grant 5187
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 323-325)
N. lotus L., N. nouchali N.L. Burman var. caerulea (M.J.C.L. Savigny) B. Verdcourt, N. x baubenyana W.T. Baxter ex C.G.B. Daubeny
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 18498)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea rubra Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 17)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6205 (PAP)
Ornementale échappé, se naturalisant.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 276)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 76)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1998) (p. 11)
N. caerulea Savigny; voucher cited: A. Engilis, Jr. & F.A. Reed 92-12 (BISH, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1998) (p. 11)
N. capensis var. zanzibarensis (Caspary) Conard; voucher cited: L. Hume 378 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (pp. 15-16)
N. capensis Thunb., voucher cited: C. Imada, T. Flynn, M. Silbernagle & T. Alexander 2000-26 (BARC, BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 17)
Nymphaea x daubenyana W. T. Baxter; West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H129901 (BISH), Oppenheimer H40139 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 16)
Nymphaea lotus L., vouchers cited: V. Daubenspeck s.n. (BISH 687341), C. Imada, L. Roth, M. Silbernagle 2000-8 (BISH), C. Imada, L. Roth, M. Silbernagle 2000-9 (BISH), C. Imada 2000-16 (BARC, BISH), C. Imada 2000-17 (BARC, BISH)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 175)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58684 (US), Thaman & Manner 251 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 107)
Nymphea capensis Thunb.; voucher cited: MacKee 37358; Nymphea sp.; vouchers cited: Hoogland & Jérémie 12762, MacKee 46224
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432365)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea (Genus of Nymphaeaceae)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 582)
Taxon name on voucher: Nymphaea spp.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 177)
Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 140)
Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. and Nymphaea stellata Willd. In shallow lakes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Nymphia giagantia. Moderate invader.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 54)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 5)
Nymphaea caerulea subsp. zanaibarensis (blue lotus) and Nymphaea mexicana (yellow waterlily)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
N. lotus
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
N. lotus
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
N. lotus
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
N. lotus
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 64)
Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex Andrews, cultivated only
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
N. lotus
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
N. lotus
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 121)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 1 MAR 2012.