Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Nicandra physalodes
(L.) Gaertn., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia suan jiang

English: apple of Peru, shooflyplant

French: nicandra

Spanish: capulí cimarró, capuli cimarron, capuli de la costa, cimarró, toccoro

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect annual herbs up to 2 m tall, glabrous or sparsely pubescent.  Leaves narrowly to broadly ovate, 4-20 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, upper surface with sparse, short, inflated, eglandular hairs, lower surface glabrous or nearly so, margins widely, irregularly, and shallowly dentate or subentire, apex acute to acumunate, base cuneate to attenuate, petioles 2-6 cm long, narrowly winged above.  Pedicels 1-2 cm long, recurved; calyx lobes ovate, 1-2 cm long, apex acute to acuminate, base sagittate and often mucronate at basal tips, the lobes appressed along the margins to form longitudinal wings; corolla pale blue or mauve with a blue spot on the paler base of each lobe, the lobes 1-2.5 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm wide, margins entire, obtuse; style thick, erect, 3-6 mm long.  Berries pale yellowish, dryish, globose, 1-2 cm in diameter, enclosed in the accrescent, scarious, reticulate calyx.  Seeds numerous, subdiscoid to broadly reniform, 1.2-2.1 mm long, testa reticulate-foveolate" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1260-1261).

Habitat/ecology:  "A weed of crop lands throughout the world in temperate and tropic zones"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry to mesic, disturbed habitats, 3-830 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1260-1261). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe peu commune des cultures" (MacKee, 1994; p. 131).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Peru

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"A native of Peru which is now widespread as a weed of arable land in warm temperate and subtropical areas". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 140 (CHR); 1898, I. Robinson (NSW); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW); J.D. McComish 193 (NSW)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1260-1261)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1260-1261)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H50807 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1260-1261)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1260-1261)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1260-1261)
New Caledonia
Matthew Island
Île Matthew introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Monzier s.n. (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 131)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 5248, MacKee 27092, Cherrier in MacKee 35906, Cherrier in MacKee 43544
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Rare. Not seen by author. Voucher cited: Sykes 1235
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Buelow 1905
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 218)
Ornamental.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 509)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 247-248)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 509)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 509)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1228)
"Gardens, waste places, rubbish heaps, open, modified scrub, and occasionally in crops".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 509)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 505)

Control: 

Chemical: "Susceptible to hormone-type herbicides, especially at young stages of growth, and probably to tebuthiuron, as are other solanaceous species"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.