Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Nerium oleander
L., Apocynaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Nerium indicum Mill.; Nerium odorum Aiton

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: adelfa, rosa laurel

Chinese: jia zhu tao

Chuukese: wiliancher

English: mountain rose, oleander, rose-laurel, rosebay

Fijian: rusi, vasa

French: laurier blanc, laurier rose, oleandre

Hawaiian: ‘oleana, ‘oliana, ‘oliwa

I-Kiribati: te orian, te orion

Japanese: ky&233;chiku-t&233;

Maori (Cook Islands): tārona

Marshallese: oliaanta, olianta

Niuean: talona

Other: holiandah

Pukapukan: tālona

Samoan: oliana, oliana

Spanish: adelfa, balandre, laurel, laurel de jardín, laurel en flor, laurel rosa, pascua

Tahitian: tarona, tarona uouo

Tokelauan: oliana

Tongan: lolie

Tongarevan (spoken): tiare tālona

Tongarevan (written): tiare tārona

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub to 5 m high or more with clear sap.  Leaves simple, arranged in whorls of three, blade narrowly elliptic, usually 8-18 cm long, surface finely veined.  Flowers continuously though the year; flowers many, borne in dense terminal clusters.  Corolla of fused petals, funnel-shaped, 3.5-5.5 cm long, with a spreading limb 4-6 cm across, five-lobed, or double-flowered, with a ring of filamentous appendages in the center, pink, purple, or white.  Fruit pod-like, cylindrical, usually 7-12 cm long, filled with hairy seeds"  (Whistler, 2000; p. 330).

Var. indicum:  "Large shrubs; leaves whorled in groups of 3, linear-lanceolate, acute at both ends, 10-30 cm long 1.5-3 cm wide, finely puberulent, firmly chartaceous or thin coriaceous, rather dull slightly grayed green; young branchlets slightly 3-angled; flowers pink or white, sometimes with double petals, commonly 4-5 cm wide; fruit (seldom seen) 15-25 cm long"  (Stone, 1970; p. 482).

Habitat/ecology:  "One of the most widely cultivated ornamentals in the world.  Drought, salt and wind resistant, oleander grows in both alkaline and acid soils"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 122).  In Fiji, "cultivated in towns and villages and sometimes naturalized in forest along creeks at elevations from near sea level to 600 m"  (Smith, 1988; p. 193).  In Niue, "a common cultivated shrub in villages.  It grows around old habitation and grave sites as a persistent relic of cultivation... (Sykes,1970; p. 45). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 175).  In Australia, "it has naturalised in riparian habitat (following flooding) in central Victoria, where it has produced many seedlings and appears very competitive" (Robinson, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 119).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Mediterranean area but now cultivated and often naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics" (Smith, 1988; p. 193).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 59)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 48)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 491, 537, 555)
"En RC, está presente por aqui y allá en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Es una planta que le gusta los bordes de esteros y que seria mejor mantener dentro de los jardines porque puede naturalizarse".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 26445)
Taxon name on voucher: Nerium oleander
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 56)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 220 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 26200 (BISH)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 103)
Voucher cited: DA 13854 (Damanu 6)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 103)
Vouchers cited: Smith 4431, Smith 9618, DA 16232
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11080 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: St. John 14760 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39528)
Taxon name on voucher: Nerium oleander
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40945)
Taxon name on voucher: Nerium oleander
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 7)
Var. indicum
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 57)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 7)
var. oleander and var. indicum
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Moore 321, More 388, BRY 26056
Escapes from cultivation and persists.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 7)
var. oleander and var. indicum
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Florence 4707
Escapes from cultivation and persists.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Grant, Martin Lawrence;Fosberg, F. Raymond/Smith, Howard M. (1974) (pp. 53-54)
Vouchers cited: Moore 321 (BISH, MIN), Moore 388 (BISH, MIN)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4707 (PAP)
Ornementale commune.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 21)
var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.; voucher cited: Sachet 1976 (US)
One plant.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Brooks & Brooks 13 (BISH), Brooks & Brooks 38 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
cultivated
Grant, Martin Lawrence;Fosberg, F. Raymond/Smith, Howard M. (1974) (pp. 53-54)
Voucher cited: Jones 841 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 39)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 14)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (pp. 32-33)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2030 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7112 (PAP)
Ornementale commune.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5735 (PAP), J. Florence 5912 (PAP)
Cultivée. Ornementale assez commune.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6541 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 482)
Voucher cited: Stone 4141 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Also var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (pp. 55-56)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. McGuire BIED23 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 15)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Var. indicum (Mill.) O.Deg. et Greenwell
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 28)
Persisting in abandoned gardens.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 28)
Persisting in abandoned gardens.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 173)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll cultivated
Moul, Edwin T. (1957) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Moul 8302 (US)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Also var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Also var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 26730 (US); also var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg., voucher cited: Fosberg 26785 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34000 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujae Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujae Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34293 (US); var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg., voucher cited: Fosberg 34291 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. iv)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3676
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 5)
"Rare; single tree in private residence in Ine".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg., voucher cited: Fosberg 27063 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 65)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Nerium sp.; voucher cited: Fosberg 33685 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 92)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58783 (US)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27930
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Baumann 15348
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 76)
Relic of cultivation.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 141)
"An occasional escape from cultivation".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: CHR 169909
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 98)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9781 (BISH)
"Naturalized in thickets".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1958) (voucher ID: BNM 165)
Taxon name on voucher: Nerium oleander L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 216)
Var. indicum (Mill.) Deg. & Deg.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 449, 451)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 336)
In cultivation but nowhere established.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11257
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 94)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 222)
"Frequent in villages".
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 58)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 119)
Victoria and Western Australia.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Yunnan, widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate parts.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 211)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
var. indicum (Mill.) O. Deg. & Greenwell
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 141)
"An occasional escape from cultivation in the warmest parts of NZ".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 63)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 121)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 10)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 32)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 3, 7)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 30)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 113)

Comments:  Known to naturalize in the tropics (Smith, 1988; p. 193).

"All parts of the plant are poisonous; ingestion of the leaves or flowers can be fatal" (Smith, 1988; p. 193).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 14 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 11 JUL 2008.