Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Nephrolepis exaltata
(L.) Schott, Lomariopsidaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Polypodium exaltatum L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Boston fern, Boston sword fern, common sword fern, sword fern

Hawaiian: kupukupu, ‘okupukupu

Spanish: helecho

Habit:  fern

Description:  "Rhizome short, ascending, emitting long slender stolons, paleate; stipites tufted. Stipes stout, 7-25 cm. x c. 3 mm., brown, sparingly paleate; rhachis stout, us. with ∞ ovate-attenuate brown paleae and hairs. Lamina oblong-lanceolate, subcoriac., 25-60-(90) x 10-15-(20) cm. Pinnae close-set, ∞, patent; lowest reduced, us. sterile, up to 2 cm. x 1 cm., oblong, obtuse. Mid-pinnae up to 7 cm. x 15 mm., us. fertile, oblong to lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate to obtuse, auriculate at base; margins crenulate-dentate; veinlets close-set, forking near tips; uppermost pinnae rather abruptly diminishing to acute apex. Sori submarginal, globose, hardly exceeding 1 mm. in diameter, up to 70 per pinna. Indusium not completely covering sorus, firm, reniform"  (Allan, 1982; 62).

"Nephrolepis exaltata is usually confused with N . cordifolia when sterile; the latter species can be distinguished by its distinctly bicolored, adaxial rachis scales. These bicolored scales will distinguish N . cordifolia from all of the other species, even in the absence of other key features"  (Flora of North America online).

Description from Flora of North America online.

Habitat/ecology:  In the United States, "terrestrial or epiphytic in forested to open habitats, most often as an epiphyte; 0 m"  Flora of North America online).

Propagation:  Spores and rhizomes.

Native range:  United States (Florida), Mexico, West Indies, French Guiana, Brazil; native range uncertain, widely cultivated; probably naturalized in the paleotropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 490-491, 536, 555)
"Afortunadamente está poco presente en los jardines del pueblo de San Juan Bautista, es una especie que debe ser vigilada muy de cerca y que probablemente seria mejor suprimir antes que se escape".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 4)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: St. John 11356 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Sánchez-Baracaldo 143 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Assez communément cultivée. Voucher cited: J. Florence 2767 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 3)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
subsp. hawaiiensis W. H. Wagner
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands native
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 41)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
subsp. hawaiiensis W. H. Wagner
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
subsp. hawaiiensis W. H. Wagner
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
subsp. hawaiiensis W. H. Wagner
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
subsp. hawaiiensis W. H. Wagner
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
subsp. hawaiiensis W. H. Wagner
Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Sunday Island native
Allan, H. H. (1982) (p. 62)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 94)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Cultivated, possible naturalized.
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Arizona, Louisiana, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 17 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 19 AUG 2013.