Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Nelumbo nucifera
Gaertn., Nelumbonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Nelumbo speciosa Willd.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: lian

English: East Indian lotus, lotus, lotusroot, oriental lotus, sacred lotus

French: fève d'Egypte, lotus indien, lotus sacré

Japanese: hasu

Korean: yeonkkot

Spanish: loto sagrado, rosa del Nilo

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "Petiole 1-2 m, terete, fistulous, glabrous or papillae hard and scattered; leaf blade abaxially blue-green, orbicular, 25-90 cm in diameter, papery, glabrous, glaucous, water-repellent, margin entire. Flowers 10-23 cm in diameter; peduncles longer than petioles, glabrous or sparsely spinulate. Tepals caducous, pink or white, oblong-elliptic to obovate, 5-10 x 3-5 cm. Stamens slightly longer than receptacle; filament slender; anther linear, 1-2 mm; connective appendage clavate, to 7 mm, incurved. Receptacle accrescent, turbinate, 5-10 cm in diameter. Fruit oblong to ovoid, 1.0-2.0 x 7-15 cm, glabrous; pericarp thick, hardened"  (Flora of China online).

"Leaves: petiole to 2 m or more. Leaf blade to 6 dm or more. Flowers: tepals normally all caducous, pink, pink-tinged, or fading to white, 1-13 cm; anthers 1-2 cm. Fruits ovoid, 10-20 x 7-13 mm, mostly more than 1.5 times longer than wide; receptacle to 1 dm diameter at maturity, gradually tapered or rounded from flattened top to base, base rounded or very slightly obtuse-tapered, lateral surface rugose or only weakly striate." (Flora of North America).

Habitat/ecology:  Aquatic herb.  In Papua New Guinea (native), "a lowland species that occurs in shallow sheltered waters of lakes, usually growing in mud to a depth of up to 2 m.  In favourable conditions it may crowd out other aquatic vegetation"  (Conn, 1995; p. 190).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical and temperate Asia, from Iran eastward to China and Japan, also northern Australia, Papuasia, and widely introduced and established elsewhere" (Howard, 1988; pp. 215-216).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 296-297)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 296-297)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2640 (PAP)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 25)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Pearsall s.n. (BISH 615506)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 107)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 46073, MacKee 46147
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Conn, Barry J., ed. (1995) (pp. 190-191)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 140)
In shallow lakes, locally very abundant; probably and introduced plant, but if so of prehistoric introduction.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Lakes, ponds, cultivated. Throughout China except Nei Mongol, Qinghai, and Xizang".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 51)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 63)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Lakes, ponds, cultivated".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Flowering late spring-summer. Ponds and lakes; 0-400 m.
Sporadically naturalized from cultivation.


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This page was created on 9 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 10 DEC 2010.