Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Momordica charantia
L., Cucurbitaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. Florida)).

Other Latin names:  Momordica muricata Willd.; Momordica zeylanica Mill.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: almagosa, atmagoso, atmagosu

Chinese: ku gua

English: balsam apple, balsam pear, bitter cucumber, bitter gourd, bitter melon, carilla gourd, cerasee bush, peria, squirting cucumber

French: concombre africain, concombre amer, margose, margose á piquants, margose amère, momordique, momordique amère, paroka, pomme de merveille

Hindi: kerala, kerela

Japanese: naga-reisi

Korean: yeoju

Maori (Cook Islands): menemene, pō kutekute, pōkutekute rengarenga

Palauan: markoso

Pohnpeian: pwompwomw, selwahkatik suwed

Samoan: sanatoto, sanatoto

Spanish: achoccha silvestre, achochilla, achogcha China, archucha, balsamina, balsamino, balsamito, bálsamo, balsamo, calaica, cunde amor grande, cundeamor, papayilla, paroka, pepinillo, pepino, sorosi

Tongan: lole ‘ae kumā, meleni ‘ae kuma, paini ‘ae kumā, vaine ‘ae kumā, vaine ‘initia

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Herbaceous, slender climber with slightly pubescent stems and leaves; petiole = blade; leaves to 10-12 cm long, palmately 5-7-lobed; the lobes " sinuate-dentate; flowers yellow; peduncle with a reniform bracteole; corolla 1.5-2 cm long; fruit obovoid or oblong-cylindric, coarsely ridged and bumpy-tuberculate, to 20 cm, orange or dark yellow when ripe, splitting open to reveal the seeds, these black but covered with a soft, fleshy red aril, 12-16 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 566).

Habitat/ecology:  Cultivated for flowers and fruit and escapes cultivation.  In the wild, in dry to moist areas at lower elevations.  "From sea level to nearly 1000 m.  It grows where annual precipitation is as low as 480 mm to as much as 4100 mm, where mean temperatures are as low as 12.5° C to as high as 25° C, and in soil with pHs from 4.3 to 8.7.  Plants grow rapidly and cover the supporting vegetation or structures,  The tendril tips curl around the nearest object.  The rest of the tendril then coils like a spring, pulling the stem to the support object" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 476).

In Hawai‘i, "widely naturalized in disturbed sites, 0-300 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 572).  In Fiji, "occurring in coastal thickets or along creeks and rivers up to an elevation of perhaps 100 m"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 675-676). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 309). In New Guinea, "useful as a ground cover, particularly under cocoa, but forming a blanket over other vegetation when uncontrolled; a weed in grazing land, unpalatable to stock. Widespread at low altitudes but only locally common" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 94).

Propagation:  Bird- and animal-dispersed seed and underground stems.

Native range:  Old world tropics; widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Manu‘a Islands   Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000)
Reported to be on the Manu'a Islands but not seen by Space & Flynn.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Manu‘a Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 36)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Possibly escaped from old cultivations.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 49)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 178)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23876)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 49)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 49)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 28)
Voucher: BMW 5791 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3900 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4145 (NY, PTBG), P. Raynor 159 (NY, PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 42803)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 675-676)
Voucher cited: Smith 309
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 675-676)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 143, DA 12137, DA 10794, DA 10964, DA 10191
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 33)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11695 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 94)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 124
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
University of California (2006)
"Very common weed, observed even up to the highest elevations on Moorea. Possibly introduced prior to European arrival perhaps as a food source".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2208 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10481 (PAP), J. Florence 10641 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 94)
Voucher cited: Florence 10481
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10481 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 94)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25980, BRY 25770
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Birnbaum 2 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9050 (PAP)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 566)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4124 (GUAM), G.E.S. 21, MacGregor 468
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 178)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 34669)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1954) (voucher ID: PTBG 22814)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22919)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 571-572)
Voucher cited: Faurie 977 (P)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Presence not verified.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 7)
"Uncommon; vine growing in Bikini Projects garden, used for food, some plants escaping into the wild".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 100)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 89)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 125)
Voucher cited: Scully 144N (US)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2476
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Hmakone & Sam in MacKee 25857
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
Renevier, Alain/Cherrier, Jean-Francois (1991) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 44040
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Balabio introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: MacKee 29338
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 46)
Vouchers cited: Cribs 608, MacKee 4123, MacKee 11912, MacKee 31254
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 79-80)
Reported to be present but not seen by Space & Flynn; may be in cultivation. Voucher cited: CHR 170279
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 16)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 8)
Not seen on this survey.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Voucher: Lorence 9725 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 18)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 178)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 303)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 99999997)
Taxon name on voucher: Momordica charantia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 543)
Abundant, on garden-fences and in taro plantations, at bush margins, etc.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 94)
Widespread at low altitudes but only locally common.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 63)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 238)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 581)
In cultivation and also thoroughly naturalized in thickets, waste places, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 92)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 18)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 529, Soakai 650
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 260)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15981
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 58
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 260)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Soakai 372
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 260)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15473
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 260)
Cited: Moseley.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Crosby 70
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 260)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 39)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (2000) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990421-11 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-10)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 180)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 106)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 478)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 478)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (pp. 478-479)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (pp. 478-479)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 239)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 478)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 479)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 61)
Casual
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 474)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 120)
Possibly naturalized.
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 17)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 28)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 479)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 148)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 29)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 169)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2373 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, Texas
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  "The balsam pear, Momordica charantia, has become an invasive species present on Aitutaki [Cook Islands]. It is to be found more and more, climbing all over the bushes and trees in the wild. And because of its excellent healing properties, people here have even started to cultivate this vine around their houses." (Bill Tschan, pers. com.)

"It serves as a wild host for the melonfly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:  Tephritidae), as serious pest of fruit crops and also of quarantine importance (Muniappan et al., 2002; p. 89).

Control: 

Physical: Its twinning habit makes it difficult to control. The best is to cut the plant from its base in soil to cut transport of nutrients and water, but this practice is labor-intensive (Ecoport).  "Physical removal of the entidre plant with roots is effective if done repeatedly for an extended period"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 14).

Chemical:  "Herbicides like triclopyr (Garlon 4) or glyphosate (Roundup) can be used"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 14).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 15 AUG 2013.