Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Modiola caroliniana
(L.) G.Don, Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Malva caroliniana L.; Modiola multifida Moench

Common name(s): [more details]

English: American-mallow, bristly-fruit mallow, Carolina bristlemallow, Carolina modiola, Carolina-mallow, creeping-mallow, red-flower creeping-mallow, red-flower-mallow, wheel-mallow

Spanish: babosilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herb, procumbent and rooting along stems, sometimes ascending at tips. Stems sparsely to moderately clothed in stellate hairs in younger parts, becoming ± glabrous toward base. Leaves usually ± glabrous above, sparsely to moderately clothed in stellate hairs below, suborbicular to ovate-cordate and acute, (5)-10-40-(50) mm long; leaves of young plants usually shallowly lobed and irregularly crenate; leaves of mature plants often deeply palmately divided into 3-7 pinnatisect lobes; petioles 5-80-(100) mm long; stipules ovate to oblong, 3-8 mm long. Flowers axillary and solitary; fruiting pedicels (5)-10-50-(80) mm long; epicalyx segments oblanceolate, < calyx; calyx teeth sparsely to moderate hairy with simple hairs, ovate-triangular, acute to acuminate, = or > tube, somewhat spreading but not enlarged at fruiting; petals bright orange to reddish orange, usually turning purple when dried, 3-7 mm long. Cells 15-25 per fruit, setaceous, particularly along the ridged back; dorsal apical angles with a short slender awn. Seeds brown, glabrous or clothed in sparse fine hairs, c. 1.5 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 835).

Description from Flora of Australia.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open to slightly shaded, usually moist areas such as pastures and along roadsides, 850-2,100 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 896).  In New Zealand, "waste places, coastal areas, lawns, pastures"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 835).  A common weed of pastures, roadsides, waste places on Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands (Flora of Australia).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Probable origin South America, naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 896)
Voucher cited: Faurie 855 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 896)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 835)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Weed of gardens and waste places".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Weed of gardens and waste places".
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 835)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 12 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 9 APR 2011.