Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Mimosa diplotricha
C. Wright ex Sauvalle, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 24 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Mimosa invisa Mart., nom. illeg.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ba xi han xiu cao

English: giant sensitive plant, nila grass

Fijian: co gadrogadro, wa ngandrongandro levu, wa ngandrongandro ni wa ngalelevu, wagadrogadro levu

Filipino: makahiang lalake

French: grande sensitive, sensitive géante

Japanese: gingokwan

Kwara‘ae: kwalo fai

Maori (Cook Islands): pikika‘a papa‘ā

Other: singbiguin sasa

Palauan: mechiuaiu

Pohnpeian: kehsapahl, limeirkelik, limemeirlap

Samoan: vao fefe pālagi, vao fefe pālagi

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "An erect, climbing, ascending or prostrate biennial or perennial shrub that often forms a dense thicket, the root system strong, often woody at the decumbent base; stems conspicuously angular throughout the length, up to 2 m tall with many randomly scattered recurved spines or thorns 3 to 6 mm long; leaves bipinnate, 10-20 cm long, moderately sensitive to the touch; pinnae four to nine pairs; leaflets 12-30 pairs, sessile, opposite, lanceolate, acute, 6-12 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; inflorescence a head, one to three in the axils of leaves, on stalks 1 cm long, hairy, about 12 mm in diameter; corolla united at least at the base (gamopetalous), pale pink; stamens twice as many as the petals; fruit a pod, spiny, three- to four-seeded, borne in clusters, linear, flat, 10-35 mm long, splitting transversely into one-seeded sections which separate at grooves or seams (sutures); seeds flat, ovate, 2 to 2.5 mm long, light brown.  It may be distinguished by its angular stems with recurved thorns or spines and by its stamens which are twice the number of the petals"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 328). Can be easily distinguished from M. pudica, as M. [diplotricha] is larger and is only slightly sensitive to touch. "A spineless form is occasionally found, but is suspected of reverting to the spiny form"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 17).

Habitat/ecology:  "A major weed in pastures, plantations and roadsides and can also be serious in crops.  It grows best where fertility, soil and air humidity and light are all high and dies away in prolonged dry seasons"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 17). "When the plant dies and dries up it is a serious fire hazard" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 331).

Forms a dense ground cover and thickets, preventing reproduction of other species.  A wildland fire hazard when dry.  Prickly nature makes travel difficult. In Fiji, "forming dense, tangled masses up to 1.5 m high in cultivated fields and pastures and on plantations"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 62-63). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, pastures and coconut plantations, but also useful as a cover crop" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 118). In New Caledonia, "elle s'est en effet montrée envahissante, formant souvent en bord de route et parfois dans les pâturages des fourrés difficilement pénétrables à cause des longues tiges épineuses enchevêtrées" (MacKee, 1994; p. 78). "La Chambre d'Agriculture l'introduisit malgré l'avis contraire d'un "practicien consommé" (L. Devillers). "Elle s'est en effet montrée envahissante, formant souvent en bord de route et parfois dans les pâturages des fourrés difficilement pénétrables" (Gargominy et al., 1996; p. 381).

Propagation:  "Seed pods float and are spread by water.  Pods are also spread when attached to fur, clothing and mud on vehicles."  (Smith, 2002; pp. 34-35). Many seed have delayed germination (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 118). "Very young seedlings a few weeks old can produce viable seeds and some will germinate immediately.  Some seeds, however, remain in the soil for years before germinating" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 328).

Native range:  Brazil.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 5, 13)
Voucher: Flynn 6591 (PTBG)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 265)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43860)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Stone, Benjamin C. (1970)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Voucher: BMW 5808 (BISH, BRI)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 155076)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593288)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593371)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687697)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 155077)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 660425)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1968) (voucher ID: PTBG 22719)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593605)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 17)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 64)
Not located in this survey.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 94)
Vouchers cited: A. Dores 159 (BISH, NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58527 (PTBG), N.H.L. Krauss 1891 a (BISH), A. Raynor 134 (NY, PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511173)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 660314)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1978) (voucher ID: PTBG 23969)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Suavalle var. var. diplotricha
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 42748)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 62-53)
Voucher cited: DA 8945
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 62-53)
Vouchers cited: DA 9720, Greenwood 838A, DA 4044, DA L.15628, Greenwood 838, DA 4045 (var. invisa); DA 9563 (var. inermis)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 14448)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 14449)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1944) (voucher ID: BISH 155107)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 155)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Florence 62639
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. inermis (A.G. Adelbert) B. Verdcourt. Voucher cited: J. Florence , C. Ollier & R. Tahauitu 11485 (PAP), J. Florence 3106 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493042)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643434)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 660315)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37296)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Suavalle var. var. diplotricha
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Space, Jim (2004)
Subject to eradication. Present status unknown.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 34)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Secondary"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 78-79)
Vouchers cited: MacDaniels 2278, Blanchon 788, MacKee 12503, MacKee 38154, Baumann & Guillaumin 10531; var. inermis Adelbert.; voucher cited: MacKee 38930
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 664394)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Voucher: Flynn 6683 (PTBG, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 8)
Subject of an eradication program.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 30184)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Suavalle var. var. diplotricha
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8206 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Voucher: Lorence 9814 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649687)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 689748)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 107)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 28067)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Suavalle var. var. diplotricha
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 155074)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 81)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 209)
Seen in grassland at Kavieng, inland from the Catholic mission.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 118)
Established in many localities, but rather slow to spread.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 137)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Parham 9010
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83872)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 165)
Dominant invader.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Subject of an eradication program.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 11, 35)
Cette espèce extrêmement envahissante en zone ouverte, notamment en bordure de routes et dans les pâturages.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 34-35)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated or naturalized in Guangdong, Hainan, and Yunnan".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 132)
Noxious weed.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 137)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 137)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 50)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 61)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 330-331)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 137)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 137)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 120)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
As Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla but probably this species.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37911)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa invisa Mart. Ex Colla [likely Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright]
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:  A very invasive species wherever introduced. On U.S. and State of Hawai‘i noxious weed lists; a declared noxious weed in Fiji and Australia (Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia) (Smith, 2002; pp. 34-35).

Reported to be present on Kosrae but not seen there.

Several small patches present on Guam and subject to an eradication program.

Recently introduced to Niue. Subject of an eradication program (see Niue report).

Control: 

Physical: Hand control is difficult due to spines. "Controlled by chipping or cultivation. Only temporarily suppressed by slashing" (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 27-28).

Chemical: "Not susceptible to: 1) soil fumigants and short-term residual herbicides, although temporarily controlled with atrazine, diuron and hexazinone at standard to high rates. Susceptible to: Translocated herbicides including sodium arsenite, 2,4-D plus atrazine, fluroxypyr and probably glyphosate at standard rates". (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 27-28).

"Tryclopyr (Garlon 4) and glyphosate (Roundup) can be used"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 18).

Biological:  Heteropsylla spinulosa has given good control of the weed in Australian pastures, but has proved ineffective in other crop situations (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 27-28).  "Biological control with Heteropsylla spinulosa has given good results in Pohnpei"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 18).

Biological control agents were reportedly introduced to Yap and Palau, but it is not known if they have become established. If present, they seem to be having little effect.

"Detailed studies have been made on two Hemiptera (Heteropsylla spinulosa and Scamurius sp.) and a moth (Psigida walkeri).  H. spinulosa has caused extensive damage following its establishment in Australia and promising early results in Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Pohnpei, but disappointing results in Western Samoa.  Ten months after release at Palikir, Pohnpei, H. spinulosa became abundant on M. [diplotricha] and subsequently killed many plants. Many psyllids were transferred to M. [diplotricha] in other areas" (Waterhouse, 1994; pp. 137, 140).

See also Julien (1992; p. 73), Waterhouse and Norris (1987; p. 454) and Waterhouse (1994; pp. 136-145) for lists of natural enemies and summaries of attempts at biological control.

Additional information:
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format)
Fact sheet from Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.

Additional online information about Mimosa diplotricha is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Mimosa diplotricha as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Mimosa diplotricha may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

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Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 155074 (Fosberg, F.R. 32503).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 155076 (Fosberg, F.R. 31916).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 155077 (Fosberg, F.R. 31289).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 14448 (Koroivaibau, D. 9720).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 14449 (Walker, C. 9563).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 660425 (Fosberg, F.R. 50534).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 83872 (Whistler, W.A. W 276).

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Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 664394 (Mackee, H.S. 38154).

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Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593371 (Herbst, D.R. 6735).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593605 (Herbst, D.R. 6856).

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 OCT 2009.