Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Mikania cordata
(Burm. f.) B. L. Rob., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Eupatorium cordatum Burm. f.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia ze lan

English: heartleaf hempvine, mile-a-minute

French: liane marzoge, liane Pauline, liane raisin

Kwara‘ae: kwalo ngingilo

Samoan: fue saina, fue sega

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A fast growing, creeping or twining, perennial vine; stems branched, pubescent to glabrous, ribbed, from 3 to 6 m long; leaves opposite, cordate or triangular-ovate, blade 3 to 12 cm long, 2 to 6 cm wide, on a slender petiole 1 to 8 cm long, base broadly cordate, tip acuminate, margins crenate, dentate, or entire, surfaces nearly glabrous, three- to seven-veined from base; flowers in small heads in open, nearly flat-topped (corymbose) panicles; axillary and terminal heads 6 to 9  mm long, four-flowered; involucral bracts four, obtuse or acute, 5 to 6 mm long, glabrous or subglabrous with one additional smaller bract about 3 mm long; corolla white or yellowish white, about 5 mm long; anthers bluish gray or grayish black; style white; fruit an achene, linear-oblong, 2 to 3 mm long, five angled, blackish brown, glandular; pappus of 40 to 45 bristles, about 4 mm long, white at first, reddish afterwards.  May be distinguished by the following characteristics: 40 to 45 reddish pappus bristles, corollas white, and heads 7 to 7.5 mm long (usually longer than those in M. micrantha, which are 4.5 to 6 mm long)" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 320, 322).

"Perennial, fast-growing, creeping or twining vine with ribbed stems 3-6 m long.  Leaves opposite, heart-shaped; leaf blades 3-12 cm long, entire or toothed; petiole 1-6 cm long.  Floral heads 6-9 mm long, clustered in open, nearly flat-topped panicles; four yellowish-white florets per head, surrounded by 4 bracts 5-6 mm long.  Achenes linear, 2-3 mm long and brownish black.  Pappus of 40-45 bristles, c. 4 mm long; white turning reddish at maturity"  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 25-26).

"M. cordata is very similar to M. micrantha but can be distinguished by the membranous outgrowths of young vegetative shoots which are hairy and the involucral bracts which are about 2 mm longer than on M. micrantha"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 47-48).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Digital Flora of Taiwan.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grows most frequently in places receiving high rainfall, probably 1,500 mm or more; prefers rich, damp soil; rarely grows in dry areas; and thrives in open, disturbed places.  For that reason it is common in young secondary forests, in forest clearings, in plantation tree crops, fallow or neglected lands, and along rivers and streams, waste areas, steep hillsides, and even mountainsides from whence winds probably spread the seeds to new areas.  The species will grow in partial shade, but cannot tolerate dense shade" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 324).

"Disturbed forests, forest clearings, plantation crops, pastures, water courses, roadsides, fallow land.  0->2000 m altitude (Papua New Guinea).  A serious weed of plantation crops (rubber, coffee, cocoa and oil palms) and pastures in Indonesia and Malaysia.  In Papua New Guinea it is not as troublesome as M. micrantha." (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 25-26).

Propagation:  "Large amounts of seed transported by the wind or by adhering to human clothing or the hair of animals.  Vegetative reproduction can occur from broken stem fragments that may be dislodged and transported by machinery or by rainfall run-off.  In Mauritius, Craig and Evans (1946) reported rapid spread of M. cordata caused by the movement of broken stem fragments by streams and floods."  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 47-48).

Native range:  Southeast Asia and East Africa (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 47-48).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 37)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 77)
Not troublesome in New Guinea as a weed.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 92)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thickets, forests; 100-1700 m. Hainan, SE Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 61)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Widespread from north to south, at forest edges".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)


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This page was created on 14 MAR 2005 and was last updated on 5 JAN 2013.