Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Megaskepasma erythrochlamys
Lindau, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk (based on second screen), score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Brazilian bower plant, Brazilian red-cloak, Brazilian-cloak, red-cloak

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub to 4 m tall; stems subquadrangular. internodes between leaf-bearing nodes 2.5-4 cm long, 6-8 mm thick, puberulous. Leaves with petioles to 4 cm long, petioles puberulous; laminae elliptic, 13-28 cm long, 3.5-13 cm broad, apically acuminate with a rounded, apiculate tip, basally acute, margins entire to crenulate, sparingly strigose on the costa and lateral veins of both surfaces, cystoliths none. Inflorescences in lax, clustered spikes to 20 cm long, 4 cm broad excluding corollas, peduncle to 3.5 cm long, brown puberulous, rachis terete, brown puberulous, bracts deep reddish purple drying to reddish brown, solitary, ovate to elliptic, 3.5-4.7 cm long, 1.5-2 cm broad, apically acute, basally acute, sparingly strigulose on both surfaces, mostly restricted to the costa, margins entire; bracteoles elliptic to 20 mm long, 5 mm broad, apically acute, basally attenuate, sparingly strigulose. Flowers with 5-merous calyx, calyx segments equal, lanceolate, ca. 10 mm long, 2 mm broad basally, densely strigose; corolla white, tube cylindrical, 20-25 mm long, 2-3 mm broad basally, pilosulous, the upper lip lanceolate to 35 mm long, 5 mm broad basally, apically 2-lobed, the lobes subulate, 1.5 mm long, 0.5 mm broad basally, the lower lip elliptic, 35 mm long, 8 mm broad, pilosulous outside, apically 3-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, 7 mm long, 2 mm broad basally; stamens exserted ca. 3 cm beyond throat of the corolla, the filaments glabrous, the anthers 4.5 mm long, 1.5 mm broad, basally mucronate; ovary 2 mm long, glabrous. Fruits clavate, 30-35 mm long, 8-10 mm broad, 6-7 mm thick, apically attenuate and mucronate, glabrous; seeds 4, suborbiculate, flattened, ca. 7 mm in diameter, glabrous.

"Megaskepasma erythrochlamys is recognized by its shrubby habit, its large leaves which lack cystoliths, and its flowers with large (3.5-4.7 cm long) reddish purple bracts, and its large (50-60 mm long) white, bilabiate corollas with two exserted stamens having two-celled anthers with equal cells. It most closely resembles the genus Justicia, but differs in its leaves, which lack cystoliths, and its much larger bracts"  (Durkee, 1986; 18:61-62).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is best grown in partial shade on a fertile, well-drained soil.  It is not salt tolerant"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 88).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Venezuela; cultivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED40 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: OED 2010030904 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1995) (voucher ID: BISH 644012)
Taxon name on voucher: Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: OED & J. Beachy 20080-42901 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
cultivated
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 306)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Durkee, L. H. (1986) (pp. 18:61-62)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 59)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 338)
"Potential threat".
Subspontaneous
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 338)
"Potential threat".
Subspontaneous
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 14 DEC 2012 and was last updated on 22 DEC 2012.