Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Medicago polymorpha
L., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Medicago hispida Gaertn.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: nan mu xu

English: bur clover, bur trefoil, burr medic, California bur-clover, hairy medic, toothed bur-clover, toothed medic, toothed medick, trefoil-clover

French: luzerne hérissée, luzerne polymorphe

Japanese: uma-goyashi

Korean: gaejari

Spanish: carretón de amores, trébol de carretilla, trefol de carretilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs; stems prostrate, up to 4 dm long, branched, subglabrous, with a few long hairs on petiolules, lower surface of leaflets, and calyx.  Leaflets obovate-cuneate, 7-25 mm long, 5-23 mm wide, glabrate, margins dentate in upper half, apex rounded to truncate or emarginate, stipules narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, laciniate.  Flowers (1-) 3-5 (-8) in racemes; corolla yellow, 3-4.5 mm long.  Pods 4-8 (-10) mm in diameter, spirally twisted in (1.5-) 3-4 (-6) turns, glabrous or subglabrous, transverse veins prominent, anastomosing, groove between submarginal and marginal vein wide, with nearly straight prickles 2-3 mm long, arising from the submarginal and marginal veins.  Seeds several"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 684, 1878).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open, dry to occasionally mesic, disturbed areas such as pastures, roadsides and vacant lots, 0-1,220 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 684).  In Tonga, "uncommon in waste places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 28). In New Caledonia, "peu commun et vu surtout comme mauvaise herbe des gazons" (MacKee, 1994; p. 86).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Europe and temperate Asia to china and Japan, also in northern India, widely cultivated as a fodder plant" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 684).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
var. vulgaris
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1306 (K); L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1209 (K, NSW); J. Pickard 2660 (NSW); 1898, J.H. Maiden (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1145 (K); 1898 & 1902, I. Robinson (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 337)
var. vulgaris. Recent presence not confirmed.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 114)
var. vulgaris per Stone. Recent presence not confirmed.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 684)
Voucher cited: Rock 3199 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 684)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 14)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 684)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 684)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1996) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Degener 3514 (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 684)
Voucher cited: Forbes s. n. (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Also var. confinis (W.D.J.Koch) Ooststr. et Reichg.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 86)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., MacKee 5195, Déméné in MacKee 14642, MacKee 37330
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 125)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Bruegmann, Marie M. (1999) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Bruegmann 2013 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated or escaped to fields, hillsides, and roadsides. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 149)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
var. polymorpha, var. confinis (W.D.J. Koch), var. lapponica Burnet and var. microdon (Ehr.)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Adventive
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated or escaped to fields, hillsides, and roadsides.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2010.