Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Martynia annua
L., Martyniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jiao hu ma

English: devil's claw, iceplant, small-fruit devil's claw, tiger's-claw

French: tête de mort

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs to 2 m tall, branched, viscid-pubescent. Leaves with petioles 10-17 cm long; blades ovate-orbicular, 8-15 x 7-16 cm, base cordate, apex rounded or acute, margin irregular, undulate to toothed, venation palmate from base, crispose glandular-hirsute below, glabrate, above. Inflorescence to 8 cm long; pedicels 1-2 cm long, bracts ovate, 1 cm long; calyx 1.5 cm long; corolla 3-5 cm long, white to pink or with purple and yellow blotches. Capsule 2-3.5 cm long, slightly compressed, hooked beak 3-5 mm long, viscid-pubescent; seeds compressed, 1 cm long, black, shiny, but striate and foveolate" (Howard, 1989; p. 339).

Habitat/ecology:  "Disturbed areas such as stockyards, rubbish dumps, around buildings and roadsides.  Invades disturbed ground where it prevents the regeneration of native species" (Smith, 2002; p. 63).  "Damp or dry thickets, fields, hedgerows, and clarings, sea level to 2,400 m" (Standley et al., 1974).

In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe peu commun en cultures et pâturages" (MacKee, 1994; p. 100).

Propagation:  "The seed remains inside the pod which attaches itself by its spines to vehicles, machinery, humans and animals" (Smith, 2002; p. 63).

Native range:  West Indies, Mexico, Central America; also cultivated and widely naturalized in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 100)
Vouchers cited: Franc 803, Schmid 3418, Thomas in MacKee 38695
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Garden escape, rarely naturalized.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 63)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 63)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forests, roadsides; 500-1500 m. S Yunnan
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 63)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 63)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  "A declared noxious weed in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. The clawed fruits cause injury and discomfort to animals having been known to work their way into soft body parts." (Smith, 2002; p. 63).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 MAY 2013.