Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Marrubium vulgare
L., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ou xia zhi cao

English: common horehound, horehound, white horehound

French: marrube blanc, marrube vulgaire

Spanish: marrubio común, toronjil cuyano

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs from a stout taproot; stems usually several, ascending to nearly erect, 3-10 dm long, conspicuously white woolly  pubescent.  Leaves elliptic to ovate-orbicular, 3-7 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, white woolly pubescent, especially on lower surface, margins crenate-dentate, apex obtuse to rounded, base very broadly cuneate to truncate or subcordate, petioles 1-2 cm long. Flowers in compact, axillary verticillasters; calyx cylindrical, 4-5 mm long, 10-toothed, the teeth more or less recurved, subequal; corolla bilabiate, white, 5-6 mm long, upper lip erect, entire or slightly 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, median lobe usually emarginate. Nutlets ovoid, ca. 2 mm long, smooth" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 806).

Habitat/ecology:  "Dry forests, scrub- and woodland, arid rangelands, disturtbed sites.  A native of dry grassland and open places, this drought tolerant plant forms dense and pure stands where invasive that may extend over large areas.  These stands reduce native species richness and alter the community structure.  Establishment and growth of tree and shrub seedlings is strongly reduced in invaded areas"  (Weber, 2003; p. 256).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and locally common in dry, disturbed sites, 150-1,920 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 806). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe peu commune" (MacKee, 1994; p. 69).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by animals and streams.  They germinate whenever sufficient rains occur, and a soil seed bank may be accumulated in large stands"  (Weber, 2003; p. 256).

Native range:  Northern Africa and Eurasia; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"A widespread weed of overgrazed pastures and waste ground". Vouchers cited: W.G. Milne 6 (K); I. Robinson 119 (NSW); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 460, 465, 555)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 460, 465, 555)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 460, 465, 555)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/341)1684
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 806)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 806)
Voucher cited: Forbes 289.L (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: MacKee 40851
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"ws in disturbed sites, common along roadsides, on farms and in waste areas in towns."
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dry grassy loess, slopes; Xinjiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 236-237)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 776)
"Open, dry pastures, rocky ground and disturbed sites such as roadsides, railways, heaps of spoil, waste places".
Rarely cultivated.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "In fire adapted communities, prescribed burning is used to kill palnts and to reduce the soil seed bank.  Follow-up programs are necessary to treat seedlings".

Chemical:  "An effective herbicide is 2,4-D ester"  (Weber, 2003; p. 256).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 20 MAY 2013.