Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Manilkara zapota
(L.) Royen, Sapotaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 9 (go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Evaluate, score: 5 (go to the risk assessment (Florida (U.S.)).

Other Latin names:  Achradelpha mammosa O. F. Cook; Achras zapota L.; Lucuma mammosa C. F. Gaertn.; Sapota zapotilla (Jacq.) Coville

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: chico

English: chicle, naseberry, sapodilla, sapote

Filipino: chico

French: sapotier, sapotillier

Japanese: sabojira, sapojira

Spanish: chico sapote, níspero, zapote, zapotillo

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, to 18 m. Leaves: petiole 10-30 mm; blade elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 60-140 x 20-50 mm, base cuneate to attenuate, margins sinuate, apex acute to acuminate (often folded on pressed specimens), surfaces brown-tomentose along midrib or glabrous abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Inflorescences solitary flowers. Pedicels 10-20 mm, rufous-tomentose Flowers: sepals ovate to lanceolate, 7-10 mm, apex acute to obtuse, tomentose; petals white, unlobed or irregularly 2-3-lobed, margins entire to irregularly 3-dentate apically, glabrous or sparsely hairy, corolla 7-11 mm, tube 4-6 (-7) mm (equaling or exceeding lobes); staminodes petaloid; ovary hairy. Berries ellipsoid or depressed-globose to subglobose, 35-80 mm, surface roughened, scaly; pedicels slightly enlarged distally. Seeds 2-10, 15-25 mm"  (Flora of North America online).

Habitat/ecology:  "A species of the lowland rainforest. Trees grow well in a wide range of climatic conditions from wet tropics to dry cool subtropical areas. But they prefer a moist hot climate similar to that found at medium to low elevations in tropical areas, such as in coastal regions. Fruiting is not adversely affected by heavy rainfall, but high temperatures (42-43 deg. C) are harmful. Trees prefer full sunshine and are fairly hardy and resistant to wind damage when mature. Young trees are frost tender and may be killed at freezing point or below, whereas mature trees can withstand short periods of temperatures of about -3 deg. C"  (Agroforestree Database).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Belize, Guatemala, Mexico, and Nicaragua; widely cultivated elsewhere  (Flora of North America online).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 205)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 135)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26263 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 60446 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3691 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2499 (PAP)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 464)
In farm-gardens.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 205)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 637726)
Taxon name on voucher: Manilkara zapota
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 69065)
Taxon name on voucher: Manilkara zapota
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 415058)
Taxon name on voucher: Manilkara zapota
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1925) (voucher ID: BISH 586766)
Taxon name on voucher: Manilkara zapota
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 49758)
Taxon name on voucher: Manilkara zapota
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 128)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 11929, MacKee 35628, MacKee 39842
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 205)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 520)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659972)
Taxon name on voucher: Manilkara zapota
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 59)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 30 SEP 2012.