Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Manihot glaziovii
Mll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll. Arg. subsp. glaziovii (Müll. Arg.) Allem

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: mu shu jiao

English: Ceará rubber tree

French: caoutchoutier de Ceará

Spanish: caucho blanco, cauchotero de Ceará

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A small tree, usually 10 meters high or less, with a dense crown, glabrous throughout or nearly so; leaves long-petiolate, membranaceous, green above, glaucous beneath, peltate shortly above the base, deeply 3-5-lobate, about 12 cm long and 16 cm wide, the lobes oblong-obovate or elliptic, rounded, to abruptly short-acuminate at the apex; stipules 4-6 mm long, lance-ovate, acute, denticulate; panicles 7-9 cm long, broadly pyramidal, the bracts 2.5 mm long, lanceolate, the pedicels about 1 cm long, the flowers nutant; calyx glabrous, campanulate, the staminate 5-fid, 9 mm long, green tinged with violet; pistillate calyx 5-parted, 1 cm long; capsule globose, 2 cm in diameter, not winged; seeds 1.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, gray mottled with brown" (Standley & Steyermark, 1949; p. 187).

"Glabrous trees 8-12 m tall. Leaves peltate, lower surface glaucous, 8-20 (-30) cm long, nearly as wide, palmately 3-5-lobed, the lobes obovate to broadly elliptic, margins entire, petioles 10-25 cm long.  Calyx greenish externally, dark purple within at base, yellowish toward apex, 1.5-1.8 cm long.  Capsules subglobose, 2-2.3 cm long, the surface warty" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 625).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized in moist to wet, disturbed areas in mesic to wet forest, 150-300 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 625). In New Caledonia, "arbre 20 m, envahissant et dominant en forêt secondaire" (MacKee, 1994; p. 53).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Brazil (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 625); also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 142)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 142)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 384)
Present status unknown.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 142)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 625)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 625)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 625)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 625)
Voucher cited: Garber 29 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., Baudouin 365 s.loc., MacKee 38013, MacKee 43927
Spontané
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 450)
Occasional in cultivation.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. S. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 119)
Naturalized in disturbed marginal rainforest.

Comments:  Reported to be invasive in Singapore (Pallawatta et al., 2003; p. 89).


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This page was created on 5 JUN 2005 and was last updated on 20 MAY 2013.