Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Macroptilium lathyroides
(L.) Urb., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Phaseolus lathyroides L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da yi dou

English: cow pea, cowpea, pea bean, phasemy-bean, phasey bean, wild bean, wild bush bean, wild pea bean

French: macroptilium à fleur rouge

Japanese: nanban-akabana-azuki

Spanish: frijolito de los arrozales, látiros del pasto, pico de aura

Tongan: pini

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect annual or biennial herbs, 0.6-1.5 m tall, sometimes trailing or twining; stems appressed pubescent.  Leaflets narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, 3-8 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, lower surface sparsely pilose at maturity, petioles 1-5 cm long, stipules lanceolate, 5-6 mm long.  Flowers subsessile, ca. 15 mm long, in pseudoracemes up to 50 cm long; standard maroon to purple, wing and keel petals tinged green, red, or white.  Pods 5.5-10 cm long, 2.5-3.5 mm wide, appressed pilose, the valves becoming strongly twisted.  Seeds 18-30, brown or marbled brown and black, obliquely oblong, ca. 3.5 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide, pitted" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 683).

Habitat/ecology:  "A widespread species in forests and open scrub of the tropics and subtropics" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 631). In Hawai‘i, " introduced as a fodder plant, naturalized in pastures, along roadsides, and in other disturbed areas, 0-610 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 683).  In Fiji, "cultivated but also an abundant weed at elevations from near sea level to 600 m, especially on Viti Levu, along roadsides, on waste land, in open fields, pastures, canefields, and in open places along streams and rivers" (Smith, 1985; pp. 247-248).  "Common on roadsides and in other waste places, particularly near the coast" (Whistler, 1988; p. 26).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico to Argentina and Paraguay; widely cultivated in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Manu‘a Islands introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 17)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Lamoureux 3051
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430302)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 29)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 37)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Campéon Islet, Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Marielas Sur Islet, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 247-248)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 163C, DA 10453
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14566)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 247-248)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 163, DA 10699, Smith 4501, DA 9489, DA 10170, DA 9767, DA 12313, Greenwood 163A, DA 9551, Gillespie 3667.2, FDA 15370
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 14562)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14565)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 155377)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 155378)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: St. John 14696 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: St. John 14657 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Quayle & Curtis 435 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1975) (voucher ID: PTBG 13214)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4135 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4431 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554394)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 154)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11712 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 649992)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 154)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2120 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 153862)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 698053)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Sachet 932 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 932 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 154)
Vouchers cited: Moore 41, BRY 25378, BRY 26373
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3490 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491667)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 154)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 154)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 5 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1985) (voucher ID: PTBG 23222)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3037 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 698055)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10095 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633915)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5525 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553134)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 579491)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 63)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1996) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: G.D. Hughes s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 683)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 13272 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 24)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 158)
Voucher cited: CHR 150557
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 85)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Laing s.n.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 88)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 227)
Taxon name on voucher: Macroptilium lathyroides
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41224)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41306)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 155386)
Taxon name on voucher: Phaseolus lathyroides L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 35)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 50)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 50)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 148-149)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 58)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 20 MAY 2013.