Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lupinus polyphyllus
Lindl., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: duo ye yu shan dou

English: bigleaf lupine, garden lupin, large-leaf lupin, marsh lupine, Russell lupin, Washington lupin

French: lupin des jardins, lupin pérenne, lupin polyphylle, lupin vivace

Spanish: altramuz perenne

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbaceous perennial; stems sparsely to moderately hairy, erect, branched from base. Leaflets 8-15, usually ± glabrous above, sparsely to moderately sericeous below, narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, acute to acuminate, 30-130 x (5)-10-30 mm; stipules oblong-lanceolate, 15-35 mm long. Inflorescence 15-60 cm long, many-flowered; peduncle up to 15 cm long. Lower flowers alternate; upper flowers subverticillate; pedicels 5-14 mm long. Calyx densely hairy; upper lip shallowly 2-toothed; lower lip slightly longer, entire. Corolla blue, purple, orange, yellow, pink or white, often of 2 colours, not or slightly scented, 12-20 mm long. Pod densely villous, 5-10-seeded, 30-50 mm long; seeds ellipsoid, smooth, dark brown and somewhat mottled, c. 2 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 661).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grassland, forest edges, heath- and woodland.  A large herb forming dense patches that can rapidly expand and crowd out almost all other species.  In Europe, extensive stands degrade species rich dry grasslands.  The tall size of the plant makes it highly competitive to native grasses and forbs.  The plant is nitrogen-fixing and increases soil fertility levels, which may change the floristic composition of the invaded vegetation"  (Weber, 2003; p. 249).

In New Zealand, "riverbeds and waste places, established locally in lowland areas, but widespread in streams, riverbeds and other disturbed montane to subalpine areas"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 661).

Propagation:  "It is a prolific seed producer and spreads by both seeds and rhizomes"  (Weber, 2003; p. 249).

Native range:  Western North America (Webb et al., 1988; p. 661).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Cultivated, naturalized in the Snowy Mountains area, sometimes very common".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 184)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 661)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alberta
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alaska, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Wyoming

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and small plants may be pulled or dug out.  If larger plants are dug out, rhizomes must be removed to prevent regrowth.  Cutting prevents seed formation".

Chemical:  "Regrowth can be treated with herbicide"  (Weber, 2003; p. 249).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 16 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 19 JAN 2011.