Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lotus uliginosus
Schkuhr, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Lotus decumbens Poir.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: big trefoil, birds-foot trefoil, greater bird's-foot trefoil, greater lotus

French: lotier des marais, lotier velu

Spanish: loto de los pantanos

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs, usually with a woody rootstock; stems erect or prostrate, hollow, 3-10 dm long, vegetative parts glabrate (outside Hawai‘i also villous).  Leaflets usually obovate, 8-25 mm long, 3-15 mm wide, sparsely long-villous especially toward margins.  Flowers 5-12 (-15) in heads, peduncles 1-2 mm long; calyx teeth about as along as the tube, the upper pair separated by an acute sinus in bud, sparsely long-villous; corolla yellow, 10-18 mm long, keel often red-tipped.  Pods straight, cylindrical, 15-35 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 681).

"This species is part of the Lotus coniculatus L. complex.  It differs in having obovate leaflets usually not more than 3 times as long as wide, and calyx teeth about as long as the tube, the upper 2 separated by an acute sinus in bud"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 681).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, coastal beaches.  Where native, this plant grows commonly in marshes and wet grasslands.  The plant is nitrogen-fixing and thus increasing soil fertility levels, which may change the floristic composition of the invaded vegetation.  The dense growth habit crowds out native plants and leads to pure stands that prevent forest regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 247).

In Hawai‘i, "probably introduced as a fodder plant, naturalized in pastures, ca. 1,340 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 681).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Native to western, southern, and central Europe in marshy areas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 681).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 681)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 2349 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: W. L. Wagner & T. Flynn 6319 (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 681)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 681)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Grows in moist sites, often in pastures on poorly-drained acidic soils."
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Idaho, Illinois
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Control methods for Lotus corniculatus may apply to this species:

Physical:  Mowing more than once every 3 weeks.

Chemical:  Spraying 2,4-D-mecoprop, dicamba, MCPA or clopyralid.  Dalapon applied as a pre-emergence herbicide.  Seedlings may be killed by atrazine or bromacil (Weber, 2003; p. 246).


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This page was created on 19 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 19 JAN 2011.