Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lonicera japonica
Thunb., Caprifoliaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ren dong

English: Chinese honeysuckle, Hall's honeysuckle, honeysuckle, Japanese honeysuckle, woodbine

French: chèvrefeuille du Japon, clématite du Japon

Hawaiian: honekakala

Japanese: nindo, suikazura

Maori (Cook Islands): mangamangā rima, pitate papa‘ā, pītete papa‘ā

Spanish: madreselva

Tongan: pua Fisi

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A weedy vine or twining shrub reaching 10 m height in the presence of support, with pubescent branchlets.  Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, sometimes lobed, 3-8 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, pubescent when young and with ciliate margins.  Fragrant white and zygomorphic flowers grow in pairs, turning yellow with age.  The peduncles are 5-10 mm long, the corollas 3-5 cm long.  The corolla is white tinged with purple and has a narrow tube.  Fruits are black to purple berries of 5-7 mm diameter, containing a few seeds of c. 2 mm diameter"  (Weber, 2003; p. 242).

"Sprawling and twining lianas; young stems pubescent. Leaves ovate, elliptic, oblong or broadly lanceolate, blades 3-8 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, pubescent, becoming glabrate above, entire or young lower leaves sometimes lobed. Flowers 2 in axillary cymes, bracts 1-2 cm long, bracteoles suborbicular, ca. 1 mm long; corolla white, turning yellowish or tinged pink, 2-lipped, 2-3 cm long. Berries bluish black, globose, 6-7 mm in diameter" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 495).

Habitat/ecology:  Mesic to wet upland areas.  Can grow up and over small trees and shrubs, smothering them.  It can form a scattered layer on the forest floor, rapidly climbing into the canopy if disturbance increases the light level (Randall & Marinelli, 1996; p. 149). In Hawai‘i, occurs in mesic to wet areas...from sea level to at least 4,000 feet; smothers plants in mesic to wet forests (Motooka et al., 2003).   In Fiji, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized from near sea level to an elevation of about 850 m"  (Smith, 1988; p. 377). In New Zealand, "abundantly naturalised in many areas but less common in southern parts of the South Island.  Disturbed forest, especially common around margins and in clearing, also in stands of introduced species and scrub" (Webb et al., 1988). In Australia, "it has the ability to smother vegetation and exclude the growth of native species, particularly at the low shrub and grass/forb level" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 175).

Propagation:  "Fruit eating birds spread the seeds, stems root down where they touch the ground, and roots make new shoots. This plant is also often dumped on bushland and roadside edges"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

Native range:  Japan, Korea and China; widely naturalized in the eastern United States (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 221).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 5, 13)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 135613)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"Presumably escaped from cultivation. It now occurs in the lower parts of the National Park and should be watched very carefully as it can become a noxious weed, destroying the native vegetation by smothering it". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1369 (A), J.D. McComish 142 (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Single plant seen, Okat. Potenially invasive.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 615062)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 377)
Vouchers cited: Smith 5025, DA 12152, DA 16781
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 32954)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 32955)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11077 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 28)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: BRY 26551
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 28)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4025 (PAP)
Ornementale peu commune.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492186)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5768 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 80345)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 550754)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 80176)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6199 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 80263)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 80347)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 66)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 495)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33294 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 495)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 19)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Martz 980826-17 (BISH), Starr & Martz 981209-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: J. Preble 2007120801
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 81)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: CHR 168864
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 114)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10198 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 15)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 104)
"Potential invader; gardens".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11172
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 672 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10760 (PAP)
Cultivée
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 643156)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 135612)
Taxon name on voucher: Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 87)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 175)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 175)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 220)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 272)
On hillslopes or in thickets.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 467)
"Disturbed forest, especially common around margins and in clearings, also in stands of introduced spp. and scrub".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 57)
Cultivated only
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 118)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Becoming a serious pest in Hawai‘i. Also a pest in Australia and elsewhere in the US. On New Zealand noxious weed list and banned from sale in that country. A pest plant on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Reported to be invasive in the Canary Islands.

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical: Individual plants may be dug out with difficulty, but pulling, cutting, mowing or burning generally stimulates dense regrowth.

Chemical: Escort 35 g + 100 ml Pulse/100 l water by handgun or 5 g + 10 ml Pulse/10l water knapsack; Tordon Brushkiller 0.6% handgun or knapsack; Roundup found to be ineffective. Vines can be cut and regrowth sprayed with 1% Roundup plus 0.1% Pulse or Escort 2 gm per 10 l water plus 10 ml Pulse (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995; pp. 171-173). Check for resprouting.

"Sensitive to hormone-type herbicides and to metsulfuron and glyphosate" (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Cut and paint stump: within 10-15 minutes of cutting, paint cut surfaces with a liberal dose of triclopyr 600 EC (100ml/L) or Yates Woody Weedkiller (200ml/L).
2. Cut and paint stump (all year round): metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5 g /L) or Tordon Brushkiller (200ml/L) or Vigilant gel. Leave vines in trees to die, dispose of cut stems at a refuse transfer station, burn or bury deeply.
3. Cut the vines at a convenient height in winter and spray the regrowth in the spring with glyphosate (10ml/L + penetrant) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (2g/10L + penetrant).
4. Spray (summer-autumn): glyphosate (10ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant) or clopyralid (50ml/10L) or Tordon Brushkiller (60ml/10L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Information from "Invasive plants of Asian origin established in the United States and their natural enemies, volume 1" (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the publication "Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control".
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Information on the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site.
Report (PDF format) from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii".
Fact sheet, including control information, from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council, New Zealand.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).
Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) factsheet (PDF format) from Virginia Department of Conservation& Recreation's invasive plant species list
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Species profile from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center.
Information and photos at Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland.
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Additional online information about Lonicera japonica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Lonicera japonica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Lonicera japonica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 135613 (Garber, D.W. 817).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 135612 (Christophersen, E. 3041).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 80176 (St.John, H. 16827).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 80263 (St.John, H. 16610).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 80345 (Fosberg, F.R. 11685).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 80347 (Fosberg, F.R. 11841).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 615062 (St.John, H. 19187).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 32954 (Pillay, S. 12152).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 32955 (Smith, A.C. 16781).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492186 (Florence, J. 4025).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 550754 (Florence, J. 5768).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 643156 (Florence 10760).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce. 1989. New collections and notes on the plants of Henderson, Pitcairn, Oeno, and Ducie Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 329. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 18 pp.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex. 2008. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2007. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 100:3-12.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Harley, Barbara. 2009. Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland. (online resource).

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. 93 p.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Neal, Marie C. 1965. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 50, Bishop Museum Press. 924 pp.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Randall, J. M./Marinelli, J. (eds.). 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Handbook 149. 111 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Smith, Albert C. 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 4. 377 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

St. John, H. 1987. An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island with new Pandanus species. Pacific Plant Studies 46. Honolulu, 65 pp. [Privately published].

St. John, Harold. 1988. Census of the Flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43. Honolulu, Hawaii. 34 pp. [Privately published].

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 908 pp.

Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. 2002. New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:16-27.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Timmins, S. M./Mackenzie, I. W. 1995. Weeds in New Zealand protected natural areas database. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation, , Technical Series No. 8. 287 pp.

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Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

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Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Zheng, Hao/Wu, Yun/Ding, Jianqing/Binion, Denise/Fu, Weidong/Reardon, Richard. 2004. Invasive plants of Asian origin established in the United States and their natural enemies, volume 1. FHTET-2004-05. U.S. Forest Service, Morgantown.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 23 AUG 2011.