Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lolium temulentum
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Lolium arvense With.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: du mai

English: bearded darnel, bearded ryegrass, darnel, darnel drake, Darnel ryegrass, drake darnel, drunken darnel, poison darnel, poison ryegrass

French: ivraie énivrante

Spanish: cizaña embriagante, corrachuela, joyo, trigollo, yoyo, zizaña, zizaña común

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Stiff, stout, erect annuals, 35-100 cm; branching intravaginal. Leaf-sheath glabrous, light brown. Auricles to 1 mm, spreading, or 0. Ligule 0.8-1.5 mm, truncate. Leaf-blade 10-22 cm x 3-4.5-(6) mm, flat, abaxially glabrous, adaxially scaberulous or rarely smooth; margins smooth below, scabrid near tapered acute tip. Culm 20-60 cm, internodes closely scabrid above or smooth. Spike 10-20-(34) cm, erect; rachis 1-2 mm wide, smooth or finely scabrid on convex side, margins scaberulous. Spikelets 10-30 mm, 5-12-flowered, green; florets turgid at maturity. Upper glume 10-22 mm, < to > spikelet, 7-9-nerved, rigid, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, smooth or scabrid. Lemma 5.5-9.5 mm, elliptic to ovate, smooth below, becoming hard at maturity, apex hyaline, scabrid, bifid, awned from sinus; awn fine, strongly scabrid, 1-13 mm, or 0. Palea = lemma. Anthers 2-3 mm. Caryopsis 5-6 x 2-2.5 mm" (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 128).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "growing in exposed sites, 0-305 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1560).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Widely naturalized, probably native in Mediterranean region" (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: Lee 276 (BISH), Haddon 289 (BISH), Whitney 4053 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
"Mauvaise herbe récoltée une seule fois"; voucher cited: MacKee 17792
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 105)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 105)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 105)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 105)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 219-220)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 105)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 219-220)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
var. tremulenium and var. leptochaeton A. Br.
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 219-220)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 128)
"Roadsides, waste land, paddocks".


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 10 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.