Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lolium multiflorum
Lam., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: duo hua hei mai cao

English: annual ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, lovitto ryegrass, Westerwold ryegrass, Westerwolds ryegrass

French: ivraie à fleurs nombreuses, ivraie multiflore, ray-grass d'Italie

Spanish: ballico de Italia, ballico Italiano, cevolillo, cola de zorro, gran ray-gras, joyo, raygras Italiano

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annuals or short-lived perennials, usually without basal innovations; culms ascending or erect, 5-10 dm tall, smooth to scabrous in lower part.  Sheaths glabrous, persistent at base of the plant, auricles well-developed, crescent-shaped, up to 1.5 mm long; ligule 0.5-1.5 mm long; blades flat or slightly involute, (3-) 3.5-7 (-10) mm wide, upper surface scabrous.  Spikes erect, (10-) 14-27 (-30) cm long; spikelets distichous, appressed against rachis, 6-10 (-15)-flowered, 9-15(-30) cm long; second glume narrowly lanceolate, 4-9 (-12) mm long, usually ca. 1/2 as long as the spikelet, apex obtuse to rounded; lemmas lanceolate, 5-6.6 (-7.5) mm long, 5-nerved, glabrous to scabrous, margins inrolled, apex obtuse to acute, those of the lower florets mucronate, those of the upper florets with awns 1-5 (-8) mm long produced from a minutely bifid apex; plaea about as long as lemma, 2-nerved, margins finely ciliate, keels winged.  Caryopsis brown, dorsally compressed, obovoid to ellipsoid, 3-4 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1561).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "used as a pasture grass, and naturalized in pastures, grasslands, cultivated fields, and other disturbed sites, 850-1,470 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1561).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Europe and the Mediterranean region, widely used in temperate regions as a pasture grass" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1561).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1561)
Voucher cited: Rock 8710 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1561)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1561)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Forbes 99.Mo (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1561)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Planted pasture species and widespread weed of crops and roadsides. South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Planted pasture species and widespread weed of crops and roadsides.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Planted pasture species and widespread weed of crops and roadsides.
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 100)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, introduced. Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 219)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 219)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 100)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 219)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 100)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 125)
"On roadsides and waste land, found sometimes as a weed in pasture and in gardens".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, introduced.

Comments:  Introduced to Fiji in 1933 but did not persist in trial plots (Smith, 1979; p. 390).


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This page was created on 30 DEC 2003 and was last updated on 8 MAR 2011.