Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Livistona chinensis
(Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart., Arecaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Latania chinensis Jacq.; Livistona oliviformis (Hassk.) Mart.; Livistona subglobosa (Hassk.) Mart.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: pu kui, shan ye kui

English: Chinese fan palm, Chinese fountain palm, fountain palm, serdang palm

French: palmier évantail de Chine, palmier fontaine

Japanese: biro

Spanish: livistona de China

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Hermaphroditic palm. Trunk to 15 m tall, 20-30 cm dbh, leaf scars obscure, roughened and with remnant tissue, light coloured, internodes narrow, irregular, brown to grey with age, petiole stubs not persistent, longitudinal fissures prominent. Leaves 40-60 in a globose to ovoid crown; petiole slightly arching, to 180 cm long, ca 15 cm wide in the middle, adaxially flat or slightly ridged, surface glabrous; margins with single curved spines in the proximal one-half or less or sometimes absent, distal margins otherwise sharp and slightly winged; spines 2-20 mm long, subulate, green to black; leaf-base fibre not prominent, coarse, and disintegrating; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, subcircular to reniform, 120-200 cm long, 120-180 cm wide, light yellowish green on both surfaces, dull to glossy, nonwaxy; lamina divided for 45-55% of its length, with 50-90 segments, depth of apical cleft ca 13% of the segment length, apical lobes pendulous; lower segments 2-5 mm wide, filamentous, parallel veins 8-9 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins; hastula ca 3 cm high. Inflorescence unbranched at the base, 100-120 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, slightly curving, branched to 3 orders; 6-7 partial inflorescences; rachillae 10-18 cm long, to 9 mm diameter, glabrous; peduncular bract(s) lacking; rachis bracts tomentose or scaly, loosely tubular, disintegrating into open chartaceous fibres with age, brown, apex acute. Flowers in clusters of 4-7, subglobose in bud, 2-2.5 mm long, white to yellowish; sepals imbricate, ca 1.5 mm long, rounded, margins hyaline, inner surface striate; petals triangular, apically pointed, fleshy, ca 2.2 mm long, ca 2 mm wide; filaments united at the base, free in the upper part, connective thickish, ca 0.5 mm long; anthers ca 0.5 mm long; style sharply tapered, ca the same height as the anthers. Fruit globose, subglobose, ellipsoid or pyriform,15-26 mm long, 9-18 mm wide, glossy blue-green to bright green; epicarp ceramic-like; suture line extends for full length of fruit, marked with lip-like structures; mesocarp ca 1.5 mm wide, fleshy, slightly oily, moderately fibrous, endocarp woody, ca 0.5 mm wide; pedicel 2-3 mm long. Seed globose, subglobose to ellipsoid, variously reniform in longitudinal section, ca 14 mm long, ca 10 mm wide; endosperm intruded by the testa to ca one-half to two-thirds through to form a cavity filled with brown crystalline tissue; embryo supra-lateral to lateral. Eophyll 7-ribbed"  (Dowe in Palmweb).

"Trunk up to 15 m or more tall. Leaves numerous, pale green, up to 1.5 m long, with a prominent undivided central area and numerous deeply bifid segments, their tips pendulous, petioles armed with stout prickles. Flowers pale yellow, in clusters of up to 6, inflorescences up to 1 m or more long, of several branches along a single main rachis, each 2-3 times divided into rachillae, bracts brown tomentose. Fruit bluish green to bright green, darker with age, ellipsoid to sublobose or pyriform, 1.5-2.6 cm long, 0.9-1.8 cm in diameter" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1364).

Habitat/ecology:  "Coastal forests on various soils, often in sand, sometimes in dense monospecific colonies, otherwise in small isolated colonies, 1-100 m altitude" (Dowe in Palmweb). In Hawai‘i, "cultivated as an ornamental, persisting after cultivation, and sparingly naturalized in areas where previously cultivated"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1364). In Florida, "Disturbed hammocks and mesic woods; 0-10 m" (Flora of North America).  "On Mauritius it is widely naturalized in the secondary and the native forests and in the southeast part of La Réunion it has spread in streambeds, shady understory of disturbed secondary forests, and in coastal areas"  (Meyer, Lavergne & Hodel, 2008; p. 78).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan) (GRIN).  "Native to Ryukyu Islands, Bonin Islands, Volcano Islands, and islands off Kyushu, Japan, now widely cultivated in tropical areas worldwide" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1364).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 84)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 37)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 395-396)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 13)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 372)
Voucher cited: Moore 443
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 13)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 141)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 84)
also var. subglobosa (Hassk.) Becc.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2011) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110819 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 5)
West Maui. Oppenheimer H10139 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1364)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: C. Daehler 1306 (HLA)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands native
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 26)
Var. boninensis Becc.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands native
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Var. boninensis Becc.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 18)
Single specimen.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 32)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 46)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 111)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 27989, MacKee 28130
Spontané
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 6)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 13, 29)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
"Showing signs of invasion".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Coastal forests, often on sandy soils. Guangdong, Hainan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 295)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1364)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 56)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Coastal forests, often on sandy soils.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 76)
Locally naturalized.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 76)
Widely naturalized/invasive.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 24 MAR 2004 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2013.