Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Litsea glutinosa
(Lour.) C.B.Rob., Lauraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Litsea laurifolia (Jacq.) F. M. Bailey; Sebifera glutinosa Lour.; Tetranthera laurifolia Jacq.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chan gao mu jiang zi

English: bolly-beech, brown bolly-gum, brown bollywood, brown-beech, Indian laurel, soft bollygum

French: avocat marron, bois d'oiseau

Kwara‘ae: ainikini

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Moderately-sized tree; bark thin, grey or pale brown; live bark 3 mm thick, pale brown, very slimy. Branchlets rather slender, stiff, minutely tomentellous towards apex, hairs very slender; terminal with dense layer of sub-appressed, glossy, long hairs. Leaves 7-15 x 3-7 cm, spirally arranged, very variable in size, usually oblong-oval or elliptic, shortly acuminate or obtuse, base acute, chartaceous to stiffly chartaceous, very densely, finely areolate-reticulate above, glabrous; midrib and slender lateral veins prominent, basal part of midrib often pilose, slightly impressed; paler beneath, minutely reticulate, very sparsely, minutely pilose, soon glabrous, midrib and lateral veins prominent, lateral veins slender, erect-patent, c. 8-12 pairs, secondary veins parallel, not horizontal. Petiole 1.5-3 cm long, slender, pilose. Flower umbels numerous, densely grey-tomentellous, 4-5 mm diameter; peduncles up to 5 mm long, slender, densely pilose on slender, short branches up to 14 mm long; perianth tube silky, funnel-shaped; tepals 0; stamens up to 20 with slender, very hairy filaments; glands on long stalks. Fruit c. 6 mm diameter, globose, purplish black, on flat, 4 mm diameter thin disc; fruiting pedicel slender" (Dassanayake, 1995).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, moist gullies.  This tree grows in monsoon forests, riparian habitats and open woodland within the native range.  It is invasive because it spreads rapidly and builds up dense thickets that displace native vegetation"  (Weber, 2003; p. 240).

In New Caledonia, assez commun à l'état spontané à la Dumbéa, rare ailleurs et peu planté" (MacKee, 1994; p. 71). In Sri Lanka, "low country, up to 1000 m altitude" (Dassanayake, 1995). In Mauritius, mid-elevation moist forests (David Lorence, pers. com.).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "From India and S. China to Malaysia, Australia and the western Pacific islands; introduced and established in Mauritius and other tropical regions" (Dassanayake, 1995).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 71)
Vouchers cited: Le Rat 2304, Franc 15, MacKee 16217, Déméné in MacKee 18457, Jaffré 1310, Suprin in MacKee 46165
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1983) (voucher ID: PTBG 29166)
Taxon name on voucher: Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1979) (voucher ID: PTBG 31771)
Taxon name on voucher: Litsea glutinosa
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 194)
Chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 86)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forest margins, streamsides, sparse forests or thickets; 500-1900 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 44)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1986) (pp. 147-162)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
Rejmánek, M. (1996) (pp. 153-172)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island   Kell, S. (1997) (pp. 13-14)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 53)
Voucher cited: Todd 21

Control:  "Seedlings and saplings may be pulled or dug out, larger plants cut and the cut stumps treated with herbicide"  (Weber, 2003; p. 240).


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This page was created on 17 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 17 JAN 2011.