Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lindernia crustacea
(L.) F.Muell., Linderniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Capraria crustacea L.; Vandellia crustacea (L.) Benth.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: mu cao

Japanese: takasagoazena, urikusa

Palauan: ilemelakel

Samoan: fua lanumoana, fua lanumoana, lau tafifi, lau tafifi

Tahitian: haehaa, mataura, moomai pere

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs; stems decumbent and usually rooting at the lower nodes, 1-2 dm long, many-branched, sometimes cespitose, puberulent to glabrate.  Leaves ovate to ovate-cordate, 0.5-1.5 cm long, 0.4-1.2 cm wide, upper surface glabrous, lower surface minutely puberulent, margins often dull purple, coarsely crenate-serrulate, petioles 1-6 mm long.  Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, pedicels 5-25 mm long; calyx 5-angled, cleft to about the middle, 2-4 mm long at anthesis, elongating up to 6 mm long in fruit; corolla pale blue or purplish, sometimes pale yellow toward base, 5-8 mm long, upper lip 2-lowed, lower lip 3-lobed, middle one slightly larger than lateral ones, the tube 4-7 mm long.  Capsules oblong-ovoid, 3.5-5 mm long.  Seeds pale brown, elliptic, 0.5 mm long, tuberculate" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1242).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in moist to wet, disturbed areas, especially along roadsides, 150-1,220 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1242).  In Fiji, "from near sea level to about 300 m, possibly indigenous, sometimes noted as moderately common, occurring on rocks, on banks of creeks, and near hot springs, but sometimes also in plantations" (Smith, 1991; pp. 81-83). In New Guinea, "a plant of wet places; in grassland, at swamp and stream edges, in forest clearings, and as a weed, particularly in plantations. It is not prominent until other weeds have been suppressed; on bare ground it may form dense turf if not disturbed. From low altitudes to 2500 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 147).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Tropical and subtropical Asia from India eastward into Australasia and Polynesia at least to the Society and Marquesas Islands, and also in tropical Africa and America.  Although Lindernia crustacea is generally noted as being pantropical in distribution, its presence in Pacific archipelagoes may have been due to inadvertent aboriginal introductions"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 81-83).

Fosberg et al., (1979; p. 249) list as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 62)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9147 (BISH), Garber 600 (BISH), Garber 623 (BISH), W. Harris 324 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 9505)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island possibly introduced
abo. intro.
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59212
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Rare. Voucher cited: Moore 361 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59047
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island uncertain if native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Lorence 9395 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24873)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 44930)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 101)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island possibly native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 104)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence 8060 (PTBG, US), N.S. Tangalin 1196 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28092)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island possibly native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 81-83)
Voucher cited: MacGillivray Oct. 1854
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island possibly native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 81-83)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 252A, DA 5773, Greenwood 252B
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island possibly native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 81-83)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 252, Billespie 3214, DA 16150, DA 11474
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence, W.L. Wagner, J. Florence, Y. Séchan & S. Bishop 6162 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9512 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 267)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 267)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25763, BRY 26494
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10367 (PAP), J. Florence 10649 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 267)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2733 (PAP), J. Florence 2837 (PAP), J. Florence 7861 (PAP), J. Florence 8118 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 110 (PAP), J.-M. Veillon & M. Guérin 148 (PAP), J. Florence & P. Birnbaum 9787 (PAP), J. Florence , C. Ollier & R. Tahauitu 11483 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1242)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 25)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80044 (BISH). All known plants destroyed.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1242)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 1321 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy (year unknown)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes and voucher.)
Voucher: Lorence 9842 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 744)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.V.M.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3145)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.V. Muell.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 135)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 22500)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 502)
Common everywhere; in gardens, plantations and Imperata grassland, in open places and lawns, at roadsides.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 59)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 147)
In New Guinea from low altitudes to 2500 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 437-438)
A common weed throughout the settled areas in open places, rice paddies, and disturbed soil generally, at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 37233)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3929)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia crustacea
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 85)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 241)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15925, Yuncker 15930
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouhcer cited: Buelow 443
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Buelow 1868
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 351)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Buelow & Sykes 60
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Buelow 2125
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 393, Buelow 1130, Buelow 1420
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Buelow 443
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouhcers cited: Crosby 139, Buelow 1041
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 241)
Cited: Crosby.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist areas, rice fields, grassland, trailsides; below 1300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 246)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 78)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 55)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist areas, rice fields, grassland, trailsides; below 1300 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 19 OCT 2006.