Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lindernia antipoda
(L.) Alston, Linderniaceae
No images for this taxon


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Ruellia antipoda L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ni hua mu cao

Japanese: suzume-no-tōgarashi

Palauan: ilemelakel, ulekelakel

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs; stems erect or decumbent, and then usually rooting at lower nodes, 2-3 dm long, branched at base, glabrous. Leaves elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, 1-2.5 (-5) cm long, 0.6-0.8 (-1) cm wide, glabrous, margins entire to remotely serrate, sessile.  Flowers solitary in the leaf axils or sometimes appearing racemose by reduction of upper leaves, pedicels 2-17 mm long; calyx cleft nearly to base, lobes linear-lanceolate, subequal, 3-5 mm long; corolla pale violet or violet blue to pale blue or white, 8-13 mm long, upper lip entire, lower lip 3-lobed, middle one slightly larger than lateral ones, the tube 3-7 mm long.  Capsules cylindrical, 5-14 mm long.   Seeds oblong to ellipsoid, ca. 0.5 mm long, reticulate" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1242).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "apparently recently naturalized in mesic sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1242).  In Fiji, "adventive and sometimes locally frequent in villages, cultivated areas, and along roads and paths from near sea level to about 200 m" (Smith, 1991; pp. 83-84).  In Tonga, "uncommon in wet areas" (Whistler, 1988; p. 36).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India to Asia and Malesia (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1242). "Tropical and subtropical Asia from India and Ceylon, throughout Malesia, and eastward to northern Australia; apparently adventive further eastward" (Smith, 1991; pp. 83-84). Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 249) list as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Marshall 82 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Lorence 9430 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24875)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 44908)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 101)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2720 (US), Glassman 2758 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 83-84)
Vouchers cited: Vaughan 3439, Meebold 16524, DA 11438, DA 11749, DA 11223, DA 7552, Smith 7077, R. Veitch 330
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 525)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1242)
Voucher cited: Stemmermann & Luce 7172 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80215 (BISH, PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy (year unknown)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 898)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alst.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 35)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 249)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 743)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alst.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 1347)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alst.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 1397)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alst.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10127)
Taxon name on voucher: Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 59)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 439)
As Ilysanthes antipoda. A characteristic rice paddy weed, usually very common.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Rice fields, wet grassland; below 1700 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 246)
On margin of forests, along streams, in wet places or farmland.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 55)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Rice fields, wet grassland; below 1700 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 5 SEP 2017.