Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Limonia acidissima
L., Rutaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Feronia elephantum Corrêa; Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle; Schinus limonia L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: elephant apple, elephant-apple, Indian wood-apple, wood apple

Fijian: vakandra

Hindi: kabeet, kabut, vellam pelam

Habit:  tree

Description: 

Genus: "Often polygamomonoecious tree, the spines axillary, short, straight, the young branchlets and foliage minutely appressed-pilose, soon glabrate; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, often deciduous, the petiole and rachis winged, the rachis segments articulated at bases of leaflets, the leaflets 5 or 7, opposite, subsessile, the blades ovate to obovate, pellucid-glandular, entire to crenulate; inflorescences axillary or terminal, loosely paniculate, the flowers perfect or male by abortion, (4-) 5 (-6)-merous; calyx small, flat, dentate, caducous; petals spreading, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, imbricate in bud, accrescent during anthesis; disk short, finely pilose; stamens usually twice as many as petals, the filaments dilated, copiously tomentose and coherent proximally, subulate at apex, the anthers large, linear-oblong, basifixed; ovary globose, incompletely 4-6 (-7)-locular (empty in male flowers), becoming 1-locular with parietal placentae, the ovules very numerous, borne in several series at angles of incomplete ovary walls, the style short, thick, attenuate, the stigma oblong-fusiform; fruits large, globose, with a woody shell, unilocular, the parietal placentae  bearing numerous seeds surrounded by gumlike pulp, the seeds oblong, compressed, the testa thin, pilose." (Smith, 1985)

Species:  "A spiny, deciduous tree to about 9 m high... The flowers are dull red or reddish, the fruits brown or whitish, up to 8 cm in diameter, with a hard, woody rind and pinkish, aromatic pulp" (Smith, 1985; pp. 526-527).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated and sometimes naturalized in waste places" (Smith, 1985; pp. 526-527).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India and Ceylon, but now cultivated in southeastern Asia, Malesia and elsewhere, and sometimes naturalized (Smith, 1985; pp. 526-527).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 526-527)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 526-527)
Voucher cited: DA 16405
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 526-527)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 18 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 6 JAN 2008.