Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ligustrum lucidum
W. T. Aiton, Oleaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Evaluate, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: nu zhen

English: broadleaf privet, Chinese privet, Chinese wax-leaf privet, giant privet, glossy privet, large-leaf privet, ligustrum, ligustrum privet, tree privet, white waxtree

French: troène de Chine

Japanese: tō-nezumimochi

Spanish: ligustro, trueno

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Shrubs or trees to 25 m, evergreen or deciduous, glabrous. Branchlets terete. Petiole 1-3 cm; leaf blade ovate to sometimes broadly elliptic or elliptic to lanceolate, 6-17 x 3-8 cm, leathery or papery, base rounded or sometimes attenuate, apex acute to acuminate or sometimes obtuse; primary veins 4-11 on each side of midrib, slightly raised or obscure. Panicles terminal, 8-20 x 8-25 cm; rachis angular in fruit. Flowers sessile or nearly so. Calyx 1.5-2 mm. Corolla 4-5 mm; tube ca. as long as lobes. Stamens approaching apex of corolla lobes; anthers 1-1.5 mm. Fruit deep blue-black, ripening red-black, reniform or nearly so, 7-10 x 4-6 mm"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, coastal cliffs.  It is a shade tolerant species that can invade closed forests wherever gaps occur.  Once established, it persists and forms dense understorey thickets that smother the native ground flora, shrubs and trees"  (Weber, 2003; p. 236).  Privets are extremely aggressive and can form dense, impenetrable thickets that crowd out desirable plants. They are prolific seed producers.  "Seeks out the more fertile soils of gullies, creeklines and rainforest edges, and watercourses affected by urban runoff; shades out native plants, transforms the habitat into one dominated by weeds"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland). 

In Australia, Ligustrum lucidum is an invasive species in coastal rainforest  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 174).  In New Zealand, "naturalised extensively in waste places, margins of remnant forest stands, coastal cliffs, and gardens"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 879).

Propagation:  Seed. Seeds are distributed by frugiferous birds (Carr et al., 1992, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, Smith, 1991; pp. 238-239).  "It is also washed down waterways, producing prodigious numbers of rapidly-growing seedlings"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

Native range:  China; widely cultivated, naturalized in southern Africa, temperate Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"A native of western and southern China which has escaped from cultivation and has proved a serious weed in some places". Voucher cited: W.R. Sykes NI 617 (CHR)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: T. Motley, W. Char, B. Pang & C. Imada 1001 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1995) (voucher ID: BISH 645399)
Taxon name on voucher: Ligustrum lucidum Aiton f.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 770411)
Taxon name on voucher: Ligustrum lucidum Aiton f.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 108)
Voucher cited: MacKee 37698 (cult.)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 174)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Widely naturalized in coastal districts.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 174)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Woods; below 2900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 243)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 879)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Information on control of Ligustrum spp. from the Bugwood Wiki.
Fact sheet from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council, New Zealand, with control information.

Physical: Small plants may be hand pulled; older individuals need to be dug out.

Chemical:  "1. Cut and paint stump (within 15 minutes of cutting): glyphosate (200ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant) or Tordon Brushkiller (200ml/L)
2. Frilling:  With a sharp chisel or axe, make a deep cut into the sapwood at regular intervals around the base of the tree, taking care not to ring-bark the plant.  Immediately saturate the cuts with metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant) or undiluted Tordon Brushkiller.
3. Injection method: Holes are drilled sloping into the sapwood at regular intervals around the tree. Immediately saturate the holes with metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant) or undiluted Tordon Brushkiller).
4. Spray (spring-autumn): metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant)."  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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This page was created on 15 DEC 2008 and was last updated on 8 MAY 2017.