Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Leonotis nepetifolia
(L.) R.Br., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Phlomis nepetifolia L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bald head, bird honey, Christmas candlestick, Johnny Collins, lion's ear, lion's tail

French: gros bouton, gros tête, pompon soldat

Spanish: rubim de bolas

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Coarse annual herbs; stems 10-25 dm long, deeply furrowed and puberulent.  Leaves membranous, oblong-ovate to ovate, 4.5-8.5 (-12) cm long, 2-5 (-9.5) cm wide, lower ones up to ca. 20 cm long and ca. 15 cm wide, both surfaces puberulent, margins coarsely crenate-serrate, apex acute to acuminate, base rounded to truncate, petioles 2-7.5 cm long, those of lower leaves up to ca. 10 cm long.  Flowers in dense globose verticillasters, 2-8 per stem, bracts linear-lanceolate, apex spinose; calyx 1.2-1.5 cm long, enlarging to 1.5-2.3 cm long in fruit, slightly curved during anthesis, 8-9-toothed, the teeth unequal, spinose, puberulent toward base, becoming hirsute above; corolla orange, 2-2.8 cm long, upper lip arched, 1-1.2 cm log, densely pubescent with orange hairs externally.  Nutlets dull black, oblong-obovoid, 2.5-4 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 803).

Habitat/ecology:  Forms dense thickets and is most abundant on heavily disturbed areas such as roadsides, overgrazed pastures and river levee banks.  It has the potential to form large colonies that displace native plants. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 172-173).  "Has the ability to develop into large colonies that displace native species, particularly along riverbanks and flood plains where the spiky nature of the seed heads reduces accessibility" (Smith, 2002; p. 62). 

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry to occasionally wet, disturbed habitats, 15 to ca. 300 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 803).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by water and in mud on vehicles and animals. Intentionally spread as an ornamental." (Smith, 2002; p. 62).

Native range:  Tropical Africa; widely naturalized tropical weed (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 803)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 803)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H50808 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 803)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70118 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 803)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Franc 1338 (BM), Botton in Schmidt 5346 (NOU), MacKee 31827
Spontané
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 62)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 62)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 211)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 211)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 54)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 125)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 150)
Voucher cited: Roberston 3130 (K)

Comments:  "A declared noxious weed in the Northern territory. A serious weed of rice and sugarcane in South America." (Smith, 2002; p. 62).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.