Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lemna spp.
Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: fu ping shu

English: duckweed

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "Fronds free-floating on or just beneath water surface, solitary or cohering in colonies, usually greenish or purplish to reddish on lower surface, obovate to orbicular or greatly elongated, each one with a single peltately attached root. Flowers 3, borne in a pouch, 2 staminate and 1 pistillate, enclosed in a membranous sheath in a marginal cleft of the frond, opening along the side or nearly closed; ovules 1-3. Seeds 1-6, usually ribbed and with minute transverse striations" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1457-1458, 1902).

Habitat/ecology:  Freshwater lakes, ponds, ditches, canals, and slow-moving streams.

Propagation:  Seed, pieces moved by water.

Native range:  Various

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 203)
Lemna purpusilla; voucher cited: P. Moore 911 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Lemna perpusilla Torr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Lemna perpusilla Torr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 581869)
Taxon name on voucher: Lemna perpusilla
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Lemna perpusilla Torr.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 34270)
Taxon name on voucher: Lemna perpusilla
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 112547)
Taxon name on voucher: Lemna perpusilla
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Lemna perpusilla Torr.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3946)
Taxon name on voucher: Lemna perpusilla Torrey
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Parham, B. E. V. (1972)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Lemna perpusilla Torrey. Voucher cited: Buelow 384
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Lemna perpusilla Torrey. Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 324, Buelow 243, Whistler 7502
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 76)
Lemna minor L. Voucher cited: Hürlmann 324
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Lemna perpusilla Torrey. Voucher cited: Buelow 1044
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 173)
Lemna purpusilla
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 301)
Lemna minor L. In ponds and paddy fields.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 54)
Lemna perpusilla Torr., naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 173)
Lemna purpusilla
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Lemna purpusilla
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 118)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 33)

Comments:  Non-native species would be aquatic threats. Only one species, Lemna aequinoctialis [=perpusilla] Welwitsh, is native to the Pacific. It is recorded from at least Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Yap, Chuuk and Fiji. It is also present in Hawai‘i, but Wagner et al. (1999; pp. 1457-1458) say that it is not known whether it is native or naturalized.

Yuncker (1959; p. 76) reports L. minor on Tongatapu. Lemna sp. observed covering a pond on Vava‘u (Space & Flynn, 2001). Smith (1979; p. 461) reports L. aequinoctialis [=perpusilla] present in Tonga.

Parham (1972; p. 29) reports L. minor present in Samoa.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 OCT 2006.