Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lawsonia inermis
L., Lythraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Lawsonia alba Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: cinnamomo

English: camphire, Egyptian-privet, henna, Jamaica-mignonette, mignonette bush, mignonette-tree

French: henné

Hindi: kiari, mendhi

Spanish: alcana, alheña, reseda, resedón

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Evergreen shrub or small tree 2-7 m high, glabrous, with the young branches 4-angular and the old ones terete, rigid and often spinescent. Leaves 1.2-6.7 x 0.5-2.7 cm., elliptic, obovate to oblanceolate, acute at the apex, sometimes mucronulate, narrowed into a short petiole, pinnately nerved, submembranous. Panicles 5-25 cm. long. Flowers whitish, scented; pedicels 2-4 mm. long; bracts 0.4-0.7 mm. long, linear, caducous. Calyx-tube 1-1.7 mm. high, with the lobes 2-3 mm. long, ovate-triangular. Petals 1.5-2.5 mm. long, slightly clawed, yellowish. Stamens with the filaments c. 5 mm. long. Style c. 3 mm. long. Fruits 4-6 x 4.5-8 mm. Seeds 2-2.6 mm. long"  (Flora Zambesiaca online).

"Fragrant shrub, up to 2.5 m tall. Leaves elliptic, ovate or obovate, acute, obtuse or subacuminate, 8-44 mm long, 2-20 mm broad. Panicles 3-22 cm long. Pedicels 2-3.5 mm long. Sepals ovate. Petals 3-4 mm long, 4-5 mm broad. Filaments 4 mm long. Capsules (3-) 4-8 (-9) mm in diameter, wall veined"  (Flora of Pakistan online).

Habitat/ecology:  "It grows mainly along watercourses and in semi-arid regions and is adapted to a wide range of conditions. It can withstand low air humidity and drought. Henna requires high temperatures for germination, growth and development"  (Agroforestree Database).  In Mozambique (native), "in alluvial soils along rivers and in villages  (Flora Zambesiaca online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Western tropical Asia, North Africa and probably of the eastern coast of Africa (Flora Zambesiaca online). Exactt native range obscure, probable origin southern Asia; cultivated and widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 181)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 181)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ornamental tree
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 289)
Vouchers cited: DA 12347, Degener & Ordonez 13627
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 434)
Occasional in Guam gardens.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 181)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 16058)
Taxon name on voucher: Lawsonia inermis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 57141)
Taxon name on voucher: Lawsonia inermis
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 54)
Casual
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.