Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Lamium amplexicaule
L., Lamiaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bao gai cao

English: common henbit, giraffehead, henbit, henbit dead-nettle

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs to 3-4 dm tall, from a taproot.  Leaves orbicular to ovate-orbicular, 0.7-2.5 (-4) cm long and about as wide, inconspicuously hirsute, strigose, or subglabrous; margins crenate or lobed, subsessile.  Flowers sometimes cleistogamous, in relatively few verticillasters, these usually widely spaced; calyx 5-8 mm long, hirsute, lobes about as long as tube; corolla pinkish purple, 12-20 mm long, upper lip 4-5.5 mm long, entire, lower lip obcordate, ca. 4 mm long, lateral lobes minute, linear; anthers pubescent"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 802).

"Herbs annual or biennial. Stems to 30 cm, much branched at base, ascending, subglabrous. Upper leaves sessile; petiole of basal leaves at least as long as blade; leaf blade circular to reniform, 1-2 x 0.7-1.5 cm, sparsely strigose, base truncate to broadly truncate-cuneate, semi-clasping, margin deeply crenate to almost palmately lobed, apex rounded. Verticillasters 6-10-flowered; bracts ca. 4 x 0.3 mm, ciliate. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 4-5 x 1.7-2 mm, densely villous, glabrous except for white villous apically inside; teeth lanceolate-subulate, 1.5-2 mm, margin ciliate. Corolla purple-red or reddish, ca. 1.7 cm, puberulent; tube ca. 1.3 cm, throat ca. 3 mm wide, annulus absent; upper lip densely purple-red pubescent on outside, straight, oblong, ca. 4 mm, apex slightly curved; lower lip slightly longer; middle lobe obcordate, 2-lobulate. Filaments glabrous; anthers hirsute. Nutlets grayish yellow, obovoid, triquetrous, constricted at base, ca. 2 x 1 mm, white tuberculate"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "waste places such as roadsides, railway yards and building sites, also on arable land"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 772).  In China, "roadsides, forest margins, marshes, sometimes weed in fields; 0-4000 m"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Native to Eurasia and northern Africa, widely but sparingly naturalized elsewhere"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 802).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 802)
Voucher cited: R. Nagata 82-4 (HLA)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & Hughes 10599 (PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Toyoda, Takeshi (2003)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands native
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, forest margins, marshes, sometimes weed in fields; 0-4000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 772)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 8 MAR 2010 and was last updated on 9 JAN 2011.