Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Koelreuteria elegans
(Seem.) A.C.Sm., Sapindaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Koelreuteria formosana Hayata

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: tai wan luan shu

English: Chinese rain tree, flame gold, golden rain tree

Fijian: lombolombo, manawi, tatange, towiwi, wiri, wiwi

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree 7-25 m in height, to ca. 50 cm (2 m recorded in Taiwan) in diameter; lenticels round to lens-shaped, pustulate, corky, cinnamon-brown; bark peeling in square plates, rough, somewhat corky, furrowed lengthwise. Leaves bipinnate, the odd terminal leaflet absent or much reduced, 25-60 cm long, 15-44 cm wide; rachis glabrous or short-hairy on the more or less grooved upper side; leaflets 8-17 on the major leaf divisions, strongly oblique, smooth and lustrous with barely manifest veins above, lanceolate to narrowly ovate to elliptic, 5.5-9.2 (-10.2) cm long, 1.3-3 (-4.2) cm wide, entire to irregularly crenate-serrate, long-acuminate to caudate at the thip, glabrous or with scattered straight hairs on the veins above and on petiolule, midvein beneath sparsely hairy with tufts of hairs in the axils and often with glands interspersed on the mid-vein and veinlets, sessile or with petiolules to ca 3 mm long. Inflorescence 30-50 cm long, 20-25 cm wide, densely puberulent and glandular, especially at anthesis, less so in fruit; flowers mildly sweet-fragrant; calyx lobes ciliate-glandular; pedicels scattered-puberulent or glabrous; petals usually 5 or 4, rarely 6, limb 5.5-7 mm long, 1.5-3.5 mm wide, acute or obtuse to rounded, appendages lobulate-undulate, claw 2-5 mm long, densely villous; stamens densely villous near base, 4.5-10.1 mm long. Capsules ellipsoidal, the valves rotund to suborbicular (placenta continuous and nonwinged), 3.4-5 (-6) cm long, (2.5-) 3.1-4.6 cm wide, inner side lustrous, reticulate-veined, scattered-pubescent when young, becoming glabrous, deep rose-purple while young, brownish at maturity; styles (1.5-) 2-6 mm long, seeds pyriform to nearly spherical, 5.2-5.5 mm in diameter, black, slightly rugose or smooth." (Meyer, 1976; pp. 156-164).

Habitat/ecology:  "Thrives in temperate climates. It tolerates full sun, partial shade, drought, frost, heat, well drained to wet soils, extended flooding and air pollution. It grows on a wide range of soil types and may be tolerant of light salt spray, but not of saline conditions"  (Australian Weed Management Guide).  Tolerates a range of soil types (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 114).

In Fiji, "occurs at elevations of 50-825 m in dense or open forest or on its edges, in dry secondary forest, in wooded gullies, and on dry hillsides, as an often spreading tree 4-25 m high" (Smith, 1985; pp. 612-613).

Propagation:  Seed (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 114).

Native range:  Taiwan, Fiji (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 612-613)
Vouchers cited: Berry 24, Smith 6429, DA 14327
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 612-613)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 450, DA 14778, DA 2359, DA 14725, Parks 20795, Gillespie 4181, Vaughan 3437, DF 1185, DF 1171, DF 1191, H.B.R. Parham 283a/b, H.B.R. Parham 301, W.L. Parham 4, Degener 15435, DA 1213
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 206)
Koelreuteria formosana Hayata (Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana (Hayata) Meyer); voucher cited Fosberg 58342 (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 29)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 25)
Subsp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey. West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H10141 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (p. 48)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Starr 060814-01 (BISH), Starr & Starr 060814-03 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 16)
subsp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey. Voucher cited: D. Frohlich & A. Lau 2008041101(BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
As Koelreuteria henryi Dummer [Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A.C.Sm. subsp. formosana (Hayata) F.G.Mey.]
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 235)
In thickets along streams at low and medium altitudes.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 114)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 4)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
subsp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  "Listed by the Brisbane City Council as a weed of bushland around Brisbane" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 114). "In Florida it has escaped from cultivation in certain areas" (Meyer, 1976; pp. 156-164).


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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.