Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Justicia procumbens
Linnaeus, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jue chuang

English: waterwillow

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Decumbent perennial herb up to 40 cm in height.  Stems pubescent, rooting at the lower nodes.  Leaves opposite, simple, elliptic to ovate, 1-4 x 0.6-1.5 cm, acute at the apex and base, surfaces glabrous to sparsely pubescent; margins ciliate; petiole 1-4 mm long.  Inflorescence of 1-3 dense, ovoid to cylindrical, axillary or terminal racemes 0.6-6 cm long.  Calyx 3-6 mm long, deeply divided into 5 linear lobes with hairy margins. subsessile, subtended by two bracts similar to the calyx lobes.  Corolla bilabiate, 4-7 mm long, shallowly divided into 2 lobes on the small upper lip and 3 on the lower, larger, suborbicular lip, lavender with white markings.  Stamens 2, epipetalous, included.  Ovary superior, 2-celled.  Fruit an ovoid capsule 4-5 mm long, splitting and spreading open by 2 valves, 4-seeded"  (Whistler, 1995; p. 19).

Habitat/ecology:  "Common in disturbed places"  (Whistler, 1995; p. 19).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern, eastern and southeastern Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 51)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34767)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 51)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34740)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9116)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 40474)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: McKee 2950
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 289)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 27464)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 490)
In open places at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Whistler 1235
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Parham 9011
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Voucher: Flynn 6919 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 312)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia procumbens
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Wastelands, roadsides, lawns, open fields, littoral forests; near sea level to 1500 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 253)
In wasteland and open field.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 52)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Wastelands, roadsides, lawns, open fields, littoral forests; near sea level to 1500 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 34)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 16 MAY 2013.