Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Juniperus bermudiana
L., Cupressaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bai mu da yuan bai

English: Bermuda juniper, Bermuda redcedar, Bermuda-cedar

French: genévrier des Bermudes

Spanish: enebro de las Bermudas

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small to medium-sized introduced evergreen tree with small scalelike leaves. Trunk straight, with many branches in compact cone-shaped crown to 40 ft (12 m) high. Bark brown, furrowed into scaly ridges and peeling. Inner bark with dead brown outer layer, whitish, fibrous, resinous. Twigs four-angled, stout, more than 1⁄16 inch (1.5 mm) wide. Leaves paired, scalelike, overlapping in four rows against twig, blunt-pointed, 1⁄16 inch (1.5 mm) or more in length, with groove along back, gray green. Leaves on young plants in groups of 3, awl-shaped, to 1⁄2 inch (13 mm) long, those on older twigs in groups of 2, 3-angled, pointed, to 3⁄16 inch (5 mm) long. Trees male and female, the male (pollen-bearing) cones cylindrical, about 3⁄16 inch (5 mm) long. Female (seed-bearing) cones berrylike, rounded or slightly two-lobed, about 1⁄4 inch (6 mm) long, whitish blue, composed of few united scales, maturing in 1 year. Seeds 2-3, egg-shaped, pointed, shiny brown, grooved"  (Little and Skolmen, 1989).

Habitat/ecology:  "In Hawaii, Bermuda juniper is grown as an ornamental and in hedges. It is also planted in the Forest Reserves on a small scale. Between 1921 and 1953, 6500 trees were planted in the forests on all islands"  (Little and Skolmen, 1989).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by birds (Oppenheimer, 2008; p. 26).

Native range:  Bermuda (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1942) (voucher ID: BISH 115383)
Taxon name on voucher: Juniperus bermudiana
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 423529)
Taxon name on voucher: Juniperus bermudiana
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120641 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2002) (p. 21)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H119816 (BISH), Oppenheimer H119817 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka & M.C. Neal s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 514544)
Taxon name on voucher: Juniperus bermudiana
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2013) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: US Army 288 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 115390)
Taxon name on voucher: Juniperus bermudiana
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 65)
Vouchers cited: Le Rat 1048, Franc 2322


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 23 SEP 2012.