Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ixora coccinea
L., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Ixora fraseri hort. ex Gentil; Ixora lutea Hutch.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: burning love, flame of the forest, flame of the woods, ixora, jungle geranium, red ixora, scarlet ixora, scarlet jungleflame

Palauan: kerdeu ra ngebard

Spanish: amor ardiente, bola de coral, cruz de Malta, equisósea

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Leaves ± sessile to short-petiolate; blades elliptic, oblong, or obovate, usually leathery, base cordate to rounded (rarely wedge-shaped), apex rounded, mucronate, or shortly tapering; stipules basally sheathing, lobes triangular and strongly awn-tipped.  Inflorescence terminal, usually a 3-branched panicle.  Flowers sessile; calyx lobes short, triangular, persistent; corolla tube usually 1-1.5 inches long, lobes lanceolate to ovate, less than 0.25 inches long, acute or sometimes obtuse.  Fruit thinly fleshy, reddish black" (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 493).

Habitat/ecology:  "Jungle-geranium grows well in full sun and light to moderate shade. It competes well with shrubs and herbs but not with dense grass. Little is known about environmental conditions in its native range, but it grows naturally in Puerto Rico in areas that receive around 1800 mm of annual precipitation. Jungle-geranium grows well in all textured soils if moisture is adequate and drainage is good. The species prefers slightly acid soils with good fertility and becomes chlorotic under alkaline conditions. It tolerates mild salt spray (Watkins and Sheeham 1975)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).  "Prefers a rich acidic soil (pH 5.0-5.5) that is well watered yet has good drainage.  It grows best in full sun" (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 493).

Propagation:  Seed.  "Jungle-geranium is spreading slowly in Puerto Rico, presumably dispersed by birds"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Native range:  Sri Lanka and southwestern India (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 493).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9222 (BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 65)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 23)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 129)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence 7916 (PTBG), F. Sohl 88 (NY, PTBG), B.C. Stone 1752 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21142)
Taxon name on voucher: Ixora coccinea L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38751)
Taxon name on voucher: Ixora coccinea
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 87)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 60129 (US)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40844)
Taxon name on voucher: Ixora coccinea
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2589 (PAP)
Ornementale fréquente à Tahiti.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 550)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Rock 954 (BISH 66757)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 11)
"Occasional; decorative planted near many houses".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 102)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 11)
"Uncommon; decorative by houses, few color variations".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A20)
Uncommon; decorative by private homes, Mili, Bar, Nallo.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 123)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 37914, MacKee 37915
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 270)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 27692)
Taxon name on voucher: Ixora coccinea L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 535)
Common in gardens of the white population.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 266)
Ornamental.


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This page was created on 4 SEP 2005 and was last updated on 5 DEC 2010.