Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ischaemum timorense
Kunth., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: di wen ya zui cao

English: centipede grass, lacuntu grass, lucuntu grass, stalkleaf murainagrass, waindoi grass

Fijian: Waindoi grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Culms sometimes rooting at the lower nodes and substoloniferous, giving rise to axillary and terminal flowering shoots 15-60 cm tall; leaf-sheaths tight, hairy round the node, fringed towards the throat, 3-6 cm long; blades commonly to 12 cm long by 8 mm wide, exceptionally larger, stiff, petioled, gradually narrowed to the base, surface glabrous or with scattered soft hairs and prominent long stiff bulbous-based hairs toward the throat, margins crisped; ligule a membrane confluent with the auricles 2 mm deep.  Inflorescence well exserted, of 2 (rarely 3) closely opposed racemes to 10 cm long, of pairs of spikelets, one sessile, one pedicelled, alternately on one side of the triangular rachis, hairy along the angles, rachis-internode 3 mm long, pedicels a little longer, similarly hairy, more or less divergent.  Sessile spikelet:  4-5 mm long, callus rather narrow, hairy; lower glume 8-nerved, indurated below, foliar above and infolded about the outermost nerves which are prolonged to form 2 points, on the back of these 2 narrow fringed wings for the upper one-quarter, the whole narrowing upwards, 4.8 mm long; upper glume narrowly boat-shaped, narrowed to a long slender point with a distinct scaberulous point from the midnerve, 6 mm long plus point 2.2 mm; lower lemma 3-nerved, hyaline, 3-nerved below the notch, the 3 nerves confluent into a kneed and twisted awn, lemma 2.0 mm to the notch plus 1.6 mm to the tips plus awn 1.65 cm long; palea 3.6 mm, hyaline, 2-nerved, stigmata 2, purple.  Pedicelled spikelet with the lower glume slightly winged on the keel, apex not bilobed, awn of the upper lemma shorter and weaker"  (Gilliland, 1971; pp. 264-265).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Roadsides, forest margins, heavy and light soils, rain-fed and upland rice fields.  Prefers sites that are neither too wet nor too dry.  Lowlands to 2000 m altitude.  Weed of cropping and plantations."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 75-76).

In Malaya, common in open grassy places (Gilliland, 1971; pp. 264-265).  In Fiji, "reported to have been accidentally introduced into Fiji about 1914.  [C]ommon in the vicinity of Waindoi, where it occurs up to an elevation of about 90 m on flat land and open hillsides" (Smith, 1979; p. 373).

Propagation:  "Seed reported to be wind-dispersed.  Vegetative propagation from stem fragments broken during cultivation"  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 75-76).

Native range:  Southern and southeastern Asia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83860)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 69-70)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 60260 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island possibly introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 58)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26273 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58457 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58561 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 60529 (BISH), L. Raulerson 25203 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 69-70)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58561 (US, BISH), Fosberg 60529 (US, BISH), Fosberg 58457 (US, BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 595022)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 595041)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 595042)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 595043)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 660166)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 1001458)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 69-70)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 47039 (US, BISH, POM), Fosberg 47036 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 69-70)
Vouchers cited: Hosaka 3286 (US, BISH, POM), Cushing & Cushing 340b (US)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 372)
Vouchers cited: DA 8361, DA 8370, DA 11425, DA 8454, DA 3957
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 31708)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1996) (pp. 11-12)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Hosaka 2596 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 69-70)
Voucher cited: Stone 4617 (GUAM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 69-70)
Voucher cited: Burcham 151 (US)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417638)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum timorense Kunth.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, damp wayside places; below 100 m. Guangdong
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 51)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, damp wayside places; below 100 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 MAY 2013.