Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ischaemum rugosum
Salisbury, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: tian jian ya zui cao

English: murain grass, muraina grass, muraino grass, ribbed muraina grass, saramatta grass, wrinkle duck-beak, wrinkled grass

Fijian: co muraina, tho muraina

Pangasinan: gulonglapas, gulonglapas

Spanish: capim macho, mazorquilla, pela bolsillo, trigillo

Subanen: daua, dauna

Tagalog: tinitrígo, tinitrigo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "An annual grass; culms 60 to 120 cm high, branched and purplish, erect or ascending; sheaths fairly loose, and pilose on margins near tips, densely soft-hairy on the nodes; ligule 1 to 7 mm, fused with the auricles; blades linear-lanceolate, sparingly pilose on both surfaces, 20 to 30 cm long and 9 to 12 mm wide; inflorescence in paired racemes 5 to 10  cm long, firmly adpressed together at the base but gradually separating, with one flat side each; spikelets 3 to 4.5 mm long, lower spikelet sessile, upper spikelet stalked, obtuse, awned; lower glume of sessile spikelet strongly transversely ribbed, hard, with a green, herbaceous, ovate tip, about 6 mm long, yellowish, keels unequally winged above, one keel of lower glume of stalked spikelet with a wide crescent shaped wing; awn 1.8 to 2.5 cm long, slender, spirally twisted in the lower half; seed 2.5 to 3 mm long, 1 mm wide, triangular in cross section, oblong, small tip (mucro), slightly concave near point of attachment.  The species is easily recognized when in flower by the prominent transverse ribs or ridges on the lower glume of the spikelet.  These are distinctive and can be seen with the naked eye.  Also, the prominent spinal awns and the tufted hairy nodes of the culm are excellent diagnostic characters for this weed" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 295).

"Annual [grass]; culms 60-120 cm high, branched, purplish, with bearded nodes; sheaths fairly loose, pilose at apical margins; blades up to 30 cm long and up to 12 mm wide; racemes paired, 4-10 cm long, at first pressed together, later separating; lower glume of sessile spikelet strongly transversely ribbed, hard, with a green ovate tip, yellowish; awn up to 2.5 cm long, slender, spirally twisted in the lower half" (Stone, 1970; p. 234).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "A weed of low country, swamps, and paddy fields.  In the Philippines it is found in wet grasslands at sea level but also grows up to 2,400 m. It is mainly a problem in warm humid regions often near the equator" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 295).  Most common in low country wet areas, but can grow from sea level to 2400 m. In Fiji, "found along roadsides and in swamps as well as in rice fields" (Smith, 1979; p. 372).

Propagation:  Seed.  "In the Philippines it has been shown that some plants may produce 4,000 seeds.  It flowers and fruits in February and October in Fiji.  The seeds have a dormant period after they have matured" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 295).

Native range:  Southern, eastern and southeastern Asia to the Philippines; northern Australia (GRIN). Possibly native to Guam, although equally probably an introduced species, according to Stone (1970; p. 234).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 372)
Vouchers cited: DA 8789, DA 16876
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 31707)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 372)
Vouchers cited: DA 8226, DA 9135, DA 2804, DA 10110, DA 2900, DA 7814, DA 7877, DA 7925, DA 9917, DA 9380, DA 3973, DA 3673, C.R. Turbet 24, DA 9126
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31706)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island uncertain if native
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 234)
Voucher cited: G.E.S. 213
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Var. segetum (Trin.) Hackel per Fosberg et al. (1987).
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 68-69)
Var. segetum (Trin.) Hack.; vouchers cited: G.E.S. 213 (US), Nelson 212 (BISH)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 125173)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 125174)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 47)
Var. segetum (Trin.) Hackel per Fosberg et al. (1987).
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 68-69)
Var. segetum (Trin.) Hack.; voucher cited: Hatusima 5025 (FU)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 38-39)
In open usually rather wet grasslands.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 53)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Marshy fields, ditch banks, river banks, other wet often slightly saline grassy places; 100-1800 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 339)
In wet places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 297)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 297)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 51)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Marshy fields, ditch banks, river banks, other wet often slightly saline grassy places; 100-1800 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A noxious weed in Fiji. On U.S. Federal noxious weed list.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 MAY 2013.