Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Ischaemum ciliare
Retz., Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Ischaemum aristatum auct.; Ischaemum indicum auct.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xi mao ya zui cao

English: Batiki bluegrass, Indian murainagrass, smut grass

Fijian: mbalanga grass, Mbatiki blue grass, small Mbatiki

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial, the culms arising from long stolons, 15-90 cm high, the nodes bearded; leaf blades 15-30 cm long, 5-7.5 mm broad, often red-purple-tinged; racemes paired, 3.5-6.5 cm long, with jointed, hairy rachis; spikelets about 4.5 mm long, with an awn 8-12 mm long" (Smith, 1979; pp. 373-374).

"Tuft-forming plant with stolons and erect flowering stemsLeaves pubescent, sheaths often densely pilose, blades to c. 15 cm long.  Racemes single or paired, purplish, 1.5-3 cm long in the few observed.  Rachis strongly flattened, jointed, long ciliate.  Spikelets c. 5 mm long excluding the floret awn which is 2 x the spikelet or more.  Lemmas membranous"  (Sykes, 1970; pp. 243-244).

"Perennial, caespitose; culms 6-75 cm tall, erect, geniculate or decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes, sometimes creeping extensively to form colonies, the internodes glabrous, the nodes usually pilose on the sheath base, sometimes nearly glabrous.  Sheaths glabrous to papillose-villous, the margin glabrous to ciliate, the collar glabrous to villous; ligule 0.6-1.3 mm long, brown, usually glabrous, sometimes the tip ciliolate and/or the back appressed-puberulent, obtuse or rounded to truncate; blades 3-11 cm long, 2-6 mm wide, linear to linear-lanceolate, usually at least sparsely pubescent, sometimes villous, pseudopetioles not developed, the base gradually narrowed to abruptly rounded, the tip acuminate, the margins scaberulous.  Racemes 2, 1-5 cm long, appressed to spreading; peduncle glabrous, usually long-exserted; rhachis internodes 1.8-2.6 mm long, triangular in cross-section, the upper 4/5 slightly winged on the lateral keels, forming a groove and with the similarly shaped pedicel enclosing the sides of the sessile spikelet, dorsal keel ciliate, the hairs to c. 1.5 mm long, the lateral keels ciliolate, glabrous below the wings.  Sessile spikelets 3.5-4.9 mm long; callus 0.5-1.5 mm long, truncate, short-pilose with hairs 0.5-1.6 mm long; lower glume 2.7-4.2 mm long, 9-15-nerved, the lower 1/3 indurate, yellowish, the upper 2/3 herbaceous with 1-4-deep wrinkles or rarely flat, usually glabrous, sometimes with a few long hairs, the margin broadly incurved in the lower 1/2, narrowly inflexed in the upper 1/2, 2-keeled in the upper 1/2, the keels equally and broadly winged, the membranous wings 0.3-0.9 mm wide, usually ciliolate, sometimes serrulate, the tip emarginate, sometimes 2-toothed; upper glume 3.5-4.9 mm long excluding the awn, 5-nerved, distinctly 2-humped on the back, keeled towards the tip, the keel winged, the wings 0.2-0.6 mm wide, the tip usually with an awn 0.3-2 mm long, the margin sometimes ciliate in the upper 1/2; lower floret staminate, membranous-hyaline, the lemma 2.9-3.5 mm long, 3-nerved, acute, usually ciliolate in the upper 1/3-1/2, the palea 2.9-3.5 mm long, 2-keeled, ciliolate in the upper 1/3, the anthers 1.6-2.2 mm long, yellow;  upper floret perfect, hyaline, the lemma 2.6-3.2 mm long, the lobes 1.0-1.5 mm long, sometimes ciliolate on the inner margin, the awn 7-13 mm long, the column 3-5 mm long, the bristle 4-9 mm long, the base of the awn fitting into the upper hump of the upper glume, the palea 2.9-3.5 mm long, 2-keeled, the anthers 1.8-2.5 mm long, yellow, the stigmas purple, the caryopsis 1.2-1.3 mm long, 0.6-0.7 mm wide, fitting into the lower hump of the upper glume.  Pedicellate spikelets 3.0-5.1 mm long; pedicel 1.8-2.8 mm long, similar to the rhachis internodes; callus 0.3-0.6 mm long, truncate, glabrous or pilose with hairs to 1.2 mm long; lower glume 2.7-4.5 mm long including an awn 0-0.7 mm long, 11-15-nerved, boat-shaped, the lower 1/4-1/3 indurate, yellowish, smooth, the upper 2/3-3/4 herbaceous, conspicuously or inconspicuously wrinkled, rounded in the lower 1/2, keeled in the upper 1/2, the keel winged, the membranous wing 0.2-0.7 mm wide, minutely ciliolate to strongly ciliate; upper glume 3-5.1 mm long including an awn 0-2 mm long, 3-5-nerved, boat-shaped or 2-hmped, the lower 1/2 indurate and rounded, the upper 1/2 herbaceous, often with 1 or 2 wrinkles, keeled, the keel narrowly winged, the wing 0.1-0.4 mm wide, minutely ciliolate to strongly ciliate, the upper 1/3-1/2 of the margin sometimes ciliate; lower floret staminate, hyaline, similar to that of the sessile spikelet, 2.7-4 mm long, the anthers 1.5-1.7 mm long, yellow; upper floret perfect, hyaline, similar to that of the sessile spikelet, 2.7-3.5 mm long, the anthers 1.8-1.9 mm long, yellow, the stigmas purple, the caryopsis 1.3-1.6 mm long, 0.6-0.7 mm wide  (Dassanayake, 1994; pp. 279-281).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "occurs near sea level in pastures and cultivated areas, along roadsides, and on hillsides. It is a useful pasture and lawn grass, but is sometimes a weed of cultivation."  (Smith, 1979; pp. 373-374).  In Samoa and Niue, mostly a cultivated pasture grass (Whistler, 1988; p. 53). Adventive in Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1556).  In open, grassy glades in lowland forests, roadsides, ditch banks, pond margins, lawns; to 500 m elevation but mostly below 200 m  (Dassanayake, 1994; pp. 279-281).

Propagation:  Seed, locally by rooting from nodes.

Native range:  India, southeastern Asia and parts of Malesia (Smith, 1979; pp. 373-374). Fosberg et al. (1987; p. 46) list as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Losap Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Losap Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 61)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Evans 1334 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 61)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Vouchers cited: Anderson 2096 (US, BISH, POM), Anderson 2148 (US, BISH, POM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 61)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Evans 1177 (US, BISH, POM, NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 61)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Anderson 969 (US, BISH, POM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 61)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Hosaka 2711 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 46)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 61)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Wong 523 (US)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 373-374)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Vouchers cited: DA 8816, DA 8824
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 373-374)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Vouchers cited: DA 8310, DA 11451, DA 17207, DA 8439, DA 7869, DA 7639, DA 8029, DA 3956, DA 436, DA 2623, DA 7763, DA 3282, Greenwood 1138, DA 8606, DA 9146
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11433 (PAP)
Naturalisée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1556)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Shinbara s. n. (BISH)
Adventive.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 29)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: Hobdy 3726 (BISH)
Naturalized
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 243-244)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Voucher cited: CHR 168771
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 53)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
As Ischaemum indicum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 53)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island native
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 53)
As Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 64)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retz.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retzius. Moist meadows, field margins, hill thickets; near sea level to 1300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 339)
In grasses and open fields.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 51)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retz. Weed of uncertain origin.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retzius. Moist meadows, field margins, hill thickets; near sea level to 1300 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retz.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retz.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 12)
As Ischaemum ciliare Retz.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 8 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 14 MAY 2013.