Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Iris germanica
L., Iridaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bearded iris, common iris, flags, Florentine iris, German iris, orris, orris-root, tall bearded iris

French: iris de Florence

Spanish: lirio blanco, lirio de Florencia

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Rhizomes homogeneous, usually many-branched, light brown, 1.2-2 cm in diameter, smooth, nodes marked by rings around rhizome, branches may arise in the fan or as many as 15-20 nodes produced prior to active leaves. Stems green, 2-3-branched, solid, 6-12 dm x 1-1.5 cm, glaucous. Leaves equitant, blade sometimes purplish at base, ensiform, to 4.5 dm x 3.5 cm, glaucous. Inflorescences with terminal unit 2-3-flowered, branch units 1-2-flowered; spathes green, sometimes with purple base, 2-5 cm, herbaceous with narrow, scarious margins and tip. Flowers: perianth shades of blue-violet, yellow, brown, or white with various patterns of pigment distribution; floral tube 1-2.5 cm; sepals spreading, drooping, or somewhat reflexed, blue-violet, yellow, brown, or white with patterned overlay of darker blue-violet, with white or yellow beard along midrib of claw and lower part of limb, obovate limb tapering gradually to claw, 6-7.5 x 4-5.5 cm; petals alternating with sepals, erect, obovate, 5-7 x 4-5.5 cm, with short, 1.5-2 cm, channeled claw; ovary roundly trigonal, 1.5-2.5 cm, slightly wider than floral tube. Capsules borne on ends of stems and branches, roundly 3-lobed, 3-5 x 2.5 cm, apex with short remnant of floral tube. Seeds in 2 rows per locule, red-brown, oval, 3-4 mm, wrinkled"  (Flora of North America online).

Habitat/ecology:  Commonly cultivated; may persist and spread after cultivation.  Often spread by dumping of garden waste.

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes.

Native range:  Probable origin eastern Mediterranean region; widely cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 486-487, 532-533, 554)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/39)1387. "Son plantas que se reproducen muy bien de manera vegetativa y que se naturalizaron en varios sitos de la Municipalidad de Juan Fernández y del pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Son plantas potencialmente capaces de colonizar espacios deniro del Parque national".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 486-487, 532-533, 554)
Voucher cited: Danton G(1433)1198. "Tuvimos la sorpresa de descubrir una mata cerca de una ruina (sector El Papal)".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Widely grown as a garden ornamental in temperate districts and naturalized locally on roadsides and wasteland".
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 129)
Naturalised
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 9 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 18 FEB 2011.